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B    3    S7fl    ^32 







Dr.   D.   G.   DALGADO, 

\UMTlhrT   fit*   t 

idcmy  of  Scien 







Notes  on  the  Climate  of  Mont'Estoril  and  the 
Riviera  of  Portugal,  or  the  Climate  of  Mont'Estoril  deter- 
mined by  the  Flora  and  by  Oceanic  and  Atmospheric  Currents. 
Lisbon,  1908.  Pag.  xn-72,  in  8.°  Price  5o  cents,  or  2sh.  6d. 

The  Climate  of  Portugal  and  Notes  on  its  Health 
Resorts.  With  six  maps  and  numerous  tables.  Lisbon,  1914. 
Pag.  xxvi-480,  in  8.°  Price  2#>5o  or  iosh.  6d. 







Dr.   D,    G.   DALGADO, 

Corresponding  Member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  Lisbon. 







The  following  pages  contain  a  critical  exami- 
nation of  that  portion  of  Lord  Byron's  Childe  Ha- 
rold's Pilg)~image  which  refers  to  Portugal.  My 
principal  aim  is  to  point  out  why  it  was  that  Lord 
Byron  reviled  the  Portuguese  with  passionate  ani- 
mosity, and  presented  them  as  though  possessing 
no  redeeming  features.  This  inquiry  is  of  consi- 
derable interest,  and  has  not  yet  received  that 
amount  of  attention  which  it  deserves. 

Childe  Harold,  as  a  purely  literary  work,  needs 
no  praise:  it  is  universally  accepted  to  be  a  mas- 
terpiece, and  is  often  adopted  as  a  text-book  for 
the  study  of  English  Poetry;  in  this  connection  it 
is  safe  to  observe  that  it  has  more  admirers  on 
the  Continent  than  in  Great  Britain  itself.  In 
Childe  Harold  the  great  poet  describes  the  more 

54f>  i  u4 


important  physical  features,  the  most  striking  his- 
torical facts,  and  the  prominent  characteristics  ot 
the  peoples  and  countries  he  visited.  A  great 
many  of  his  ideas  were  the  result  of  his  impressions 
or  impulses  of  the  moment,  of  his  passionate  and 
often  unaccountable  sympathy  or  antipathy.  He 
does  not  care  for  what  others  say  on  a  subject; 
it  is  always  what  he  himself  thinks.  And,  cu- 
riously enough,  this  very  egoism,  this  public  con- 
fession of  his  apparently  innermost  soul  is  one 
of  the  charms  of  his  poetry.  Whatever  his  other 
faults,  and  unfortunately  they  are  many,  it  is  im- 
possible not  to  admire  his  great  poetical  talent. 

Lord  Byron's  other  writings  referring  to  Portu- 
gal have  not  the  same  interest  as  his  Childe  Harold. 

I  wish  to  acknowledge  here  my  endebtedness 
to  the  Academy  of  Sciences  for  ordering  the  publi- 
cation of  this  Paper. 

Lisbon,  October  iqi8. 

D.  G.  D. 


Preface  v 

Introduction: — Birth  and  education.  Hours  of  Idleness  and 
English  Bard  and  Scotch  Reviewers.  Grand  tour.  Re- 
turn to  England  and  Childe  Harold.  The  remaining  pha- 
ses of  the  Poet's  life:  Don  Juan  and  dramas.  The  revo- 
lutionary character  of  his  works.  Division  of  the  subject 
into  three  Parts xi 


Text:  Canto  I.  Stanzas  XIV-XXXIII ,        i 



St.  XIV: — I.  Four  days  are  sped,  but  with  the  fifth  anon. 

II.  Lusian 9 

St.  XV: — I.  A  goodly  sight  to  see.  II.  His  hot  shafts  urge 
Gaul's  locust  host 11 

St.  XVI:  —  I.  Lisboa.  II.  Poets  vainly  pave  with  sands  of 
gold.  III.  Who  lick,  yet  loathe,  the  hand  that  waves  the 
sword 16 

St.  XVII:  —  I.  'Mid  many  things  unsightly  to  strange  ee. 
II.  Though  shent  with  Egypt's  plague, unkempt, unwash'd, 
unhurt 21 


St.   XVIII:  —  I.  Why,   Nature,  waste   thy  wonders  on  such 

men?     II.  Lo!  Cintra's  glorious  Eden 24 

St.  XIX:  —  I.  The  cork  trees  hoar  that  clothe  the  shaccv 

steep 28 

St.  XX:  —  I.  Our  Lady's  House  of  Woe.     II.  Honorius  ...      29 
St.  XXI:  —  I.  Some  hand  erects  a  cross  of  mouldering  lath. 

(Daily  assassinations  and  assaults) 33 

St.  XXII: — I.  Domes  Avhere  whilome  kings  'did  make  re- 
pair. .  .  ruined  Splendour.  II.  And  yonder  towers  the 
Prince's  palace  fair.     III.  Vathek!  England's  wealthiest 

son,  once  form'd  thy  Paradise 44 

St.  XXIII:  —  I.  But  now,  as  if  a  thing  unblest  by  Man,  thy 

fairy  dwelling  is  as  lone  as  Thou 49 

St.  XXIV: — I.  The  hall.     II.  Where  blazoned  glare  names 

known  to  chivalry 5i 

St.  XXV:  —  I.  Convention  is  the  dwarfish  demon 54 

St.  XXVI:  —  I.  Britannia  sickens,  Cintra!  at  thy  name  ...      55 

St.  XXVII:  — I.  Gazed  on  truth 56 

St.  XXVIII:  — I.  To  horse!  to  horse! 5j 

St.  XXIX:  — I.  Mafra.  II.  Where  dwelt  of  yore  the  Lu- 
sian's  luckless  queen.  III.  Mass  and  revel...  lordlings 
and  freres.     IV.  Babylonian  Whore. . .  and  the  blood  she 

hath  spilt 58 

St.  XXX:  —  I.  Oh!  there  is  sweetness  in  the  mountain  air.    .      62 
St.  XXXI:  —  I.  Immense  horizon-bounded  plains  succeed.    .      63 
St.  XXXII:  —  I.  Rival   realms.     II.  The  jealous  jQueens  of 
Nations.    III.  Or  fence  of  art  like  China's  wall?  Ne  barrier 

Avail,  ne  river  deep  and  wide 64 

St.  XXXIII:  —  I.  The  Spanish  hind. . .  and  Lusian  slave,  the 

lowest  of  the  low 65 

Concluding  remarks 70 



I:  —  Stanzas    to   a   Ladv   with    the   «Poems  of  Camoens». 
I.  The  Poems  of  Camoens.     II.  But  not  thy  hapless  fate 
♦       the  same - y5 


II:  —  From  the  Portuguese  «Tu  me  chamas».  I.  The  ori- 
ginal of  «Tu  me  chamas». 81 

III:  —  Lines  to  Mr.  Hodgson.  Written  on  board  the  Lisbon 

packet.     I.  Lines  to  Mr.  Hodgson 82 

IV:  —  Letter  to  Mr.  Hodgson.  Lisbon,  July  16,  1809.  I.  Hob- 
house's  Book  of  Travel.  II.  I  am  happy  here. .  .  I  swims 
in  the  Tagus 85 

V:-«-Letter  to  Mr.  Hodgson.  Gibraltar,  August  6,  1809.    .    .       89 

VI:  —  Letter  to  Mrs.  Byron.  Gibraltar,  August  11,  1809. 
I.  I  have  an  invitation  on  my  return  to  Cadiz,  which  I 
shall  accept  if  I  repass  through  the  country  on  my  return 
from  Asia 90 

Bibliography  of  Byron's  works  translated  into  Portuguese. . .    99 

NOTE.  —  All  the  Notes  by  Byron  in  his  printed  editions  of 
Childe  Harold  are  marked  bv  a  capital  letter  when  thev  are  placed 
in  the  body  of  the  work  (A,  B,)  or  by  an  ordinarv  one  when  at 
the  foot  of  the  page  (a,  b,  c,),  they  are  furthermore  indicated  bv 
the  letters  B.  N.  at  the  end  of  each  note;  all  the  Verses  and  Notes 
in  the  original  manuscript  are  placed  in  brackets  [  ].-  The  editorial 
Notes  are  indicated  by  small  Roman  numerals  (I,  II,  III,)  when  in 
the  body  of  the  work,  and  by  the  Arabic  (1,  2,  3,)  when  they  are 


George  Noel  Gordon  Byron,  the  most  brilliant  Eng- 
lish poet  of  the  xix.  century,  was  born  at  Holies  Street, 
London,  on  January  22,  1788,  and  was  the  son  of  Captain 
John  Byron  and  of  his  second  wife  Catherine  Gordon, 
of  Gight  in  Aberdeenshire.  The  father  haying  dissi- 
pated his  own  fortune  and  that  of  his  wife,  and  being 
harassed  by  creditors,  fled  to  France  and  died  at  Va- 
lenciennes in  1791.  Mrs.  Byron  found  herself,  for  her 
position  in  life,  in  very  straitened  circumstances,  with 
an  income  of  only  one  hundred  and  thirty  pounds  a  year; 
and  she  thought  it  adyisable  to  remove  to  Scotland  and 
take  lodgings  at  Aberdeen.  As  a  child  Byron  did  not 
receiye  the  kind  of  attention  which  his  temperament 
required.  His  mother,  who  was  hysterical,  caressed 
him  very  indulgently  one  day,   and  treated  him  with 


violence  the  next,  and  thus  increased  his  natural  sen- 
sitiveness and  irritability.  He  had  the  misfortune  to 
suffer  also  from  some  lameness,  due  to  infantile  para- 
lysis of  one  of  his  legs.  On  the  whole  the  impressions 
of  his  childhood  were,  as  he  styled  them,  'melancholy'. 
When  ten  years  of  age,  on  the  death  of  his  grand-uncle, 
he  succeeded  to  the  peerage  under  the  title  of  Baron 
Byron  of  Rochdale,  being  the  sixth  of  his  line,  and 
came  into  possession  of  about  one  thousand  five  hun- 
dred pounds  a  vear. 

When  thirteen  years  old  he  went  to  Harrow,  and 
from  i8o5  to  1808  to  Trinity  College,  Cambridge.  In 
his  studies,  both  at  school  and  at  the  University,  he 
does  not  appear  to  have  learnt  much  of  what  was  taught, 
but  he  used  to  read  a  great  deal,  and,  being  endowed 
with  an" excellent  memory,  was  far  better  informed  than 
many  other  students  much  older  than  himself.  A  me- 
morandum [  made  by  him  on  November  3o,  1807,  shows 
how  wide  was  his  reading.  The  subjects  which  he 
preferred  were,  generally  speaking,  poetry  and  history. 
With  reference  to  Portugal  he  read  Vertot's  History 
of  the  Revolution  in  Portugal  in  1640,  a  work  describ- 
ing how  the  Portuguese  got  rid  of  the  Spanish  domi- 
nation and  placed  the  Duke  of  Braganza  on  the  throne 

1  V.  Moore  (Thomas):  Letters  and  Journals  of  Lord  Byron, 
with  Notices  0/ his  Life.  London,  1901,  pg.  46.  (The  first  edition 
in  2  vol.  was  published  in  iS3o). 


as  John  IV.  Another  book  which  greatly  attracted  his 
attention  in  those  days  was  a  translation  of  the  Poems 
of  Camoens  by  Strangford.  Both  at  school  and  college 
he  devoted  himself  freely  to  sports  of  various  kinds: 
riding,  shooting,  fencing,  boxing,  and  swimming. 

Like  many  other  poetical  geniuses,  Byron  was  a 
precocious  lover.  Besides  his  early  juvenile  attach- 
ments first  to  his  cousin  Mary  Duff  and  afterwards  to 
another  cousin  Margaret  Parker,  his  first  earnest  love 
he  bestowed  on  Miss  Mary  Anne  Chaworth;  this  was 
in  i8o3  when  he  was  only  sixteen  years  old.  It  was 
unfortunate  for  him  that  she  did  not  accept  his  advances, 
and  treated  him  rather  derisively  by  saying  to  her  maid, 
accidentally  within  his  hearing,  that  she  would  not 
marry  anybody  who  was  lame.  How  greatly  he  was 
attached  to  her  may  be  judged  by  his  lines  addressed 
To  a  Lady,  commencing  with  the  words:  «Oh!  had 
my  fate  been  joined  with  thine»,  and  by  Stanzas  to  a 
Lady,  on  leaving  England. 

Byron  commenced  to  write  verses  when  he  was 
fourteen.  At  the  close  of  1807  he  published  his  first 
book,  the  Hours  of  Idleness.  Fortunately  for  him,  it 
attracted  the  notice  of  the  Edinburgh  Review,  which 
attacked  it  in  a  criticism  of  merciless  severity.  Had  it 
not  been  for  this  act  of  hostility  he  would  probably 
have  ceased  to  write  verses  for  the  public.  The  criti- 
cism put  him  on  his  mettle.     He  could  not  stand  rebuke 


without  contemplating  revenge.  He  brought  out  in  the 
spring  of  1809  his  English  Bards  and  Scotch  Reviewers, 
a  bitter  satire,  attacking  very  boldly  not  only  the  editor 
and  other  contributors  to  the  review  but  also  all  the 
prominent  writers  of  the  day,  describing  them  all  with 
infinite  contempt  as  a  'dirty  pack'.  He  was  expecting 
that  some  of  them  would  send  him  their  cartels,  but  he 
was  disappointed,  for  all  treated  him  with  silent  scorn. 
He  was  as  quick  to  resent  a  rebuke  as  to  feel  childishly 
elated  when  praised.  He  now  became  a  contributor 
to  the  Monthly  Review  because  it  had  published  a  fa- 
vourable notice  of  his  book.  It  was  about  this  time, 
from  1807  to  1809,  that  he  led  a  very  riotous  life:  he 
fell  into  excesses  and  dissipations  of  every  kind.  One 
of  his  loves  accompanied  him  dressed  as  a  jockey.  All 
this  brought  him  into  pecuniary  difficulties. 

Disappointed  in  love  and  having  failed  to  achieve 
immediate  success  as  a  poet,  which  he  had  looked  for- 
ward, he  became  very  nervous  and  irritable*,  regarded 
himself  as  friendless  and  abandoned  by  all,  and  decided 
to  find  relief  in  travels  abroad  —  in  the  «grand  tour* 
which  he  had  been  contemplating  for  some  time.  He 
sailed  for  Lisbon  in  July  1809.  Just  before  leaving 
England  the  general  condition  of  his  mind,  as  des- 
cribed by  his  friend  and  literary  adviser,  R.  C.  Dallas, 
was  full  of  discontent:  ((Resentment,  anger,  hatred  held 
full  sway  over  him,  and  his  gratification  at  that  time 


was  in  overcharging  his  pen  with  gall,  which  flowed 
in  every  direction,  against  individuals,  his  country,  the 
world,  the  universe,  creation  and  the  Creator» l. 

When  he  arrived  in  Portugal  his  mind  was  biassed 
against  the  Portuguese.  It  was  at  this  time  a  common 
belief  among  Englishmen  that  if  there  was  any  nation 
that  could  oppose  the  ambitions  of  Napoleon,  and  there- 
by favour  the  interests  of  the  British,  it  was  Spain, 
and  not  Portugal.  The  Spaniards  were  considered 
quite  a  match  for  the  French,  and  their  resources  and 
patriotism  were  looked  upon  as  boundless.  Long  be- 
fore Byron  came  to  Lisbon  it  had  been  pointed  out  by 
Wellington  (then  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley),  as  will  be  seen 
further  on,  how  baseless  were  these  views.  Besides 
this  general  bias  Byron  had,  during  his  ten  days  stay 
in  Lisbon,  an  unfortunate  experience  in  one  of  his  love 
adventures,  an  experience  which,  due  to  his  inordinate 
pride  and  irritability,  greatly  embittered  his  mind  against 
the  Portuguese. 

After  leaving  Lisbon  he  spent  twenty  days-in  Spain, 
and  wandered  for  nearly  two  years  in  Albania,  Greece, 
Turkey  and  Asia  Minor.  When  at  Joannina  he  com- 
menced to  write  his   Childe  Harold,  on  October  3i, 

1  Dallas  (R.  C):  Recollections  of  the  Life  of  Lord  Byron,  by 
the  late. . .  Published  by  the  author's  son  A.  R.  G.  Dallas.  London, 
1824,  pg.  65.  —  A  sister  of  R.  C.  Dallas  was  married  to  Lord  By- 
ron's uncle,  Captain  George  Byron,  of  the  Royal  Navy. 


1809;  and  he  finished  the  second  Canto  at  Smyrna,  on 
March  20,  18 10. 

He  returned  to  England  on  the  14th  of  July  181 1, 
and,  while  settling  some  legal  and  literary  affairs  in 
London,  received  an  intimation  that  his  mother  had 
been  suddenly  taken  ill,  and  while  on  his  way  to  New- 
stead  Abbey  he  received  the  news  of  her  death.  This 
was  the  severest  blow  he  had  till  then  received;  his 
mother  died  on  the  1 st  of  August,  death  being  due  to  an 
apoplectic  stroke  brought  on  by  rage  over  an  upholster- 
er's bill.  He  had  also  lost  during  his  absence  three 
or  four  of  his  best  friends  l.  For  a  considerable  time 
he  was  more  miserable  than  ever.  All  his  surround- 
ings reminded  him  of  his  past  adventures  and  past 
disappointments.  His  travels  had  done  him  not  much 

When  more  settled  in  mind  he  occupied  himself  in 
making  corrections  ^and  alterations  in  his  Childe  Harold. 

1  One  of  his  friends  was  the  Honourable  John  Wingfield,  of 
the  Coldstream  Guards,  who  died  of  a  fever  at  Coimbra  on  Mav  14, 
181 1.  Byron  devotes  to  his  memory  stanzas  xci.  and  xcu.  of 
the  First  Canto  of  Childe  Harold.  Another  was  Edward  Noel 
Long,  who  was  drowned  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  while  coming  with 
his  regiment  to  Lisbon.  This  officer  has  been  confounded  bv  a 
Portuguese  writer  with  Lieut.  R.  G.  Massev,  who  was  accidentally 
drowned  in  the  Mondego  on  the  i5lh  of  March,  1827,  and  was  no 
friend  of  Byron's. 


The  general  frame  of  his  mind  in  those  days  may  be 
judged  from  what  he  wrote  to  Mr.  F.  Hodgson  on 
September  26,  181 1.  «I  have  attacked)),  he  says,  «De 
Pauw,  Thornton,  Lord  Elgin,  Spain,  Portugal,  the 
Edinburgh  Review,  travellers,  painters,  antiquaries  and 
others,  so  you  see  "what  a  dish  of  sour  crout  controversy 
I  shall  prepare  for  myself.  It  would  not  answer  for 
me  to  give  way  now;  as  I  was  forced  into  bitterness 
at  the  beginning,  I  will  go  through  to  the  last.  'Vas 
yictis'.  If  I  fall  I  shall  fall  gloriously,  fighting  against 
a  host»l. 

Byron  was  not  at  all  sure  of  the  success  of  his 
poem.  He  told  Dallas  that  the  manuscript  had  been 
seen  by  only  one  person,  «who  had  found  few  things 
in  it  to  praise  and  many  to  condemn,  and  that  he 
1  Byron)  agreed  with  him».  But  both  were  greatly 
mistaken.  It  was  published  on  the  10th  of  March,  18 12, 
and  wTas  an  enormous  success;  it  took  the  public  by 
storm.  «I  awoke  one  morning»,  says  Byron,  «and 
found  myself  famous ».  It  placed  him  at  once  at  the 
head  of  all  his  literary  contemporaries:  he  became  «the 
grand  Napoleon,  of  the  realms  of  rhyme». 

1  Byron's  letters  arc  quoted  by  their  dates,  so  as  to  enable 
the  reader  to  refer  to  any  work,  accessible  to  him,  on  the  subject. 
The  best  edition  of  his  letters  is  in  the  Works  of  Lord  Byron: 
Part  I.  Letters  and  Journals,  edited  by  R.  C.  Prothero.  6  vol. 
London,  1898-1901. 

Will  CUILM.    IIAKol.bS   1'ILGRIMAOI  . 

The  two  Cantos  of  Childe  Harold  arc  no  more  than 
a  traveller's  diary,  <>i  impressions  received  in  Portugal, 
Spain,  Epirus,   Acarnania  and  Greece.     There  is  no 
plot  of  any  kind.     Childe  Harold  had  been  a  real  per- 
son who  had  travelled   in   the   same   way  as  the  poet. 
That  is   all.     This  is  the  reason   why  that  portion  of 
the  Canto  referring  to  Portugal  can  be  detached  from 
the  rest  and  studied  separately.      He  describes  in  the 
two  Cantos  the  impressions  he  received  in  each  coun- 
try.    When  in  Portugal  and  Spain  the  subject  upper- 
most in  his  mind  was  the  Peninsular  War;  in  Greece 
it  was  its  past  glory,  its  august  Athena,  which  tired 
his  youthful  imagination  to  secure  its  liberation.     All 
his  impressions  are  conveyed  in  an  imagery  and  lan- 
guage   quite    his    own.      He    expresses    himself   ccwith 
thoughts  that  breathe  and  words  that  burn».     There 
is  a  good  deal  of  noble  enthusiasm,  and  also  a  good 
deal    of   bitter    satire    and   sarcasm,    his    repertory   of 
abusive  language  being  inexhaustible.     His  descriptions 
of  natural  beauties  are  short,  bold,  vigorous  and  inimit- 

Childe  Harold  attracted  attention  nouonly  in  Great 
Britain  but  all  over  Europe.  Besides  its  intrinsic  merit 
the  poet's  rank,  his  youth,  his  handsome  looks,  and 
his  unconventional  manner  of  life  also  contributed  to 
its  popularity.  A  critic  of  those  days  has  remarked 
how  it  was  a  greater  favourite  with  women  than  with 
men.     The  die  was  cast.     Byron  decided  to  give  up 


all  his  other  ambitions  and  to  devote  himself  entirely 
to  poetry. 

After  having  become  a  celebrity  the  poet  was  more 
circumspect  as  to  what  he  wrote  or  said.  Up  to  that 
time  he  was  under  the  impression  that  his  greatest 
talent  lay  in  satire.  He  was  hoping  to  gain  more  fame 
by  his  Hints  from  Horace,  written  in  March  i8ii,  than 
from  Childe  Harold.  But  once  he  stumbled  on  a  new 
road  to  fame,  he  suppressed  his  Hints  and  also  his 
Curse  of  Minerva,  and  went  so  far  as  to  burn  the  fifth 
edition  of  English  Bards;  he  commenced  to  compose 
Eastern  romances  such  as  The  Giaour,  Lara,  etc. 

The  remaining  phases  of  the  poet's  life  and  his  other 
works  need  no  extended' notice  here.  His  great  po- 
pularity in  England  did  not  last  long.  His  marriage 
to  Miss  Milbanke  on  January  2,  181 3,  and  his  wife's 
separation  from  him  a  year  afterwards,  on  the  birth  of 
his  daughter  Ada,  combined  with  other  circumstances, 
some  real  others  fanciful,  brought  great  obloquy  on  his 
name,  and  he  left  England  for  good  in  1816.  After 
travelling  through  Belgium  and  along  the  Rhine*  he 
spent  a  season  in  Switzerland  on  the  borders  of  the 
Lake  Leman,  where  he  came  in  contact  with  the  Shel- 
leys,  and  contracted  an  intimacy  with  Miss  Clare  Clair- 
mont,  half-sister  of  Mrs.  Shelley  and  mother  of  his 
natural  daughter  Allegra.  He  then  went  to  Italy  and 
tixed  his  residence  at  Venice, 


In  1816  he  brought  out  his  third  Canto  of  Childe 
Harold  and  in  1818  the  fourth;  the  former  devoted. to 
the  Rhine  and  Switzerland,  and  the  latter  to  Italy. 
There  is  a  <R>od  deal  of  difference  between  the  earlier 
and  later  Cantos.  In  the  first  two,  when  he  was  young, 
he  treats  the  subject  more  objectively,  and  also  intro- 
duces in  his  composition  many  archaic  words  and  phra- 
ses. In  the  other  two,  when  he  had  more  experience 
of  the  world,  he  writes  in  a  much  more  high  and 
brilliant  vein,  and  is  free  from  archaisms. 

During  1818  to  1823  he  published  his  Don  Juan, 
which,  considered  purely  from  the  literary  pojnt  of 
view,  is  superior  to  all  his  other  works,  but  unfortuna- 
tely cctoo  free  for  these  very  modest  days»  and  not  of 
a  kind  to  be  adopted  as  a  text-book  in  colleges  and 
schools.  His  Vision  of  Judgment,  published  in  1822, 
is  unrivalled  as  a  satire.  It  is  during  his  stay  in  Italy 
that  he  brought  out  all  his  dramas :  Man/red,  Marino 
Faliero,  Sardanapalus,  Cain,  and  others. 

At  Venice  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  Countess 
Guiccioli,  and  formed  a  faux  menage  with  her  in 
Januaiw  1X20.  He  then  changed  his  residence  succes- 
sively to  Ravenna,  Pisa,  and  Genoa.  The  Countess 
has  written  a  book  consisting  mostly  of  opinions  formed 
by  different  authors  of  his  characters  l,      The  poet  was 

1  Lord  Byron  juge  par  les  temoins  de  sa  vie.  2  vol  Paris,  1868. 
Published  anonymously. 


perhaps  more  devoted  to  her  than  to  anv  other  woman. 
He  lived  with  her  till  the  time  he  left  for  Greece,  to 
support  the  Greek  cause  against  the  Turks;  he  died  at 
Missolonghi  on  April  24,  1824,  of  rheumatic  fever.  The 
circumstances  attending  his  untimely  death,  for  he  was 
only  thirty  six  years  and  three  months,  combined  with 
his  superb  poetical  genius,  gave  rise  to  real  sorrow 
and  regret  all  over  Great  Britain,  and  also  to  a  wride 
extent  over  the  Continent.  In  a  work  entitled  Le  Der- 
nier Chant  de  Guide  Harold  Lamartine  has  described 
Byron's  last  actions  and  last  thoughts. 

Byron  has  been  styled  a  poet  of  Revolution.  There 
is  no  doubt  that  in  many  of  his  writings  he  shows  the 
spirit  of  Rousseau  and  Voltaire.  He  is  opposed  to  the 
monarchical  form  of  government;  he  sighs  for  republics 
everywhere;  he  exposes  hvpocrisv  in  matters  of  reli- 
gion, and  is  an  ardent  apostle  of  freedom.  In  his  two 
speeches  in  the  House  of  Lords  he  spoke  in  defence  of 
labourers  who  had  taken  part  in  riots,  and  in  favour 
of  the  emancipation  of  Irish  Catholics.  Although  ra- 
dical In  his  opinions  he  was  an  aristocrat  by  instinct. 
In  Italy  he  became  a  carbonaro  and  helped  the  cause 
of  Italian  unity;  and  he  sacrificed  his  life  in. the  cause 
of  Greek  independence.  With  a  temperament  like  his, 
so  mobile  and  impulsive,  it  is  difficult  to  sav  what  he 
would  not  have  done  had  he  lived  long  enough.  He 
might  have  ended  as  a  King  of  Greece,  or  even  as  a 


great  apostle  of  Christiariitv,  after  having  made  bonfire 
of  all  his  writings. 

Byron's   other  writings   referring   to  Portugal   are 

three  poems  —  the  most  important  of  which  is  StdJi^as 
to  a  Lady  with  the  Poems  of  Camoens  -and  three 
letters,  giving  an  account  of  his  travels  in  the  Peninsula. 

A  suggestion  has  been  thrown  out  that  the  poet's 
mind  was  never  quite  sane.  This  is  quite  possible,  lor 
there  were  marked  traits  of  insanity  and  of  crime  both 
on  his  father's  and  mother's  side.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  his  splendid  poetical  genius  was  combined  with 
many  moral  or,  what  his  adversaries  called,  'satanic1 
delinquencies.  He  was  generous  and  affectionate,  but 
he  was  also  extremely  irritable,  proud,  and  passionate. 
With  Lord  Byron,  says  Dr.  Kennedy,  dove  must  reign 
paramount  to  all  laws  and  principles,  moral  and  divine, 
and  death  and  damnation  must  be  encountered,  rather 
than  restrain  its  impetuous  and  uncontrollable  force. 
In  short,  it  is  a  species  of  insanity,  that  takes  possess- 
ion-of  the  mind,  which  absorbs  every  other  feeling 
and  interest  »*. 

The  works  of  Byron  have  been  received  with  feel- 
ings, as  mixed  as  his  temperament.  In  Great  Britain 
there  has  always  existed  a  considerable  prejudice  against 
his  private  life,  against  some  of  his  writings  and  many 

1   Kennedy  (James):  Conversations  on  Religion  with  Lord  By- 
ron and  others.     London,  is3o,  pg   33i. 


of  his  political  opinions.  He  is  disliked  in  conservative 
circles,  and  lauded  by  the  radicals.  Some  critics  find 
fault  with  his  technique.  In  Portugal  he  is  admired 
for  his  great  poetical  talent,  and  for  his  charming 
picture  of  the  natural  beauties  of  Lisbon  and  Gintra, 
but  is  condemned  for  his  description  of  the  national 
character.  In  other  countries  on  the  Continent  he  is 
generally  received  with  open  arms:  all  unite  in  praising 
his  poetical  gifts,  and  not  a  few  his  radical  ideas.  The 
clericals  dislike  him.  for  his  offensive  religious  views', 
but  for  this  very  quality  he  has  the  esteem  of  free- 
thinkers like  Mazzini.  A  revolutionary  cannot  be  ex- 
pected to  please  everybody. 

Of  all  the  English  poets  there  are  only  three  whose 
names  are  widely  known  on  the  Continent.  The  first 
is  Shakespeare,  whose  plays  are  very  extensively  read, 
but  more  in  translations  than  in  the.  original.  Milton 
comes  next,  but  curiously  enough,  he  is  known  more 
by  his  name  than  by  his  works;  but  his  name  always 
goes  with  that  of  Shakespeare.  Then  comes  Byron, 
the  only  one  whose  works  are  widely  studied  in  the 
original  and  still  more  widely  in  numerous  translations. 
Of  all  his  poems  the  most  prized,  or  at  least  the  most 
widely  studied,  is  his  Childe  Harold. 

1  A  French  clergyman,  A.  Julien,  admired.  Childe  Harold  so 
much  that  he  translated  it  into  French  verse  after  expunging  what 
he  considered  to  be  against  his  views. 


The  materials  for  the  life  and  works  of  Byron  are 
extensive.  To  the  Portuguese  student  I  would  special- 
ly recommend  Macaulay's  and  Morley's  Essays  on  Lord 
Byron;  Taine's  description  of  Byron  and  his  works  in 
his  Histoirc  de  la  litterature  atiglaise;  and  Elze's  Bio- 
graphy l.  Byron  is  now  judged  more  by  his  works  than 
by  his  private  life,  although  his  private  life  and  his 
sympathies  or  hatreds  cannot  be  separated  altogether 
from  his  works.  In  Portuguese  the  best  work  on  his 
visit  to  Lisbon  is  by  Alberto  Telles2.  -There  has  been 
a  considerable  revival  of  Byron  during  the  last  thirty 

The  following  study  is  divided  into  three  Parts: 
the  First  contains  simply  the  text  of  Childe  Harold's 
PilgiHmage  to  Portugal; -the  Second  is  devoted  to 
Notes  and  Comments  on  each  stanza:  and  the  Third 
deals  with  his  other  Poems  and  Letters  referring  to 

i  Elze  (Karl):  Lord  Byron,  3c  Auf.  Berlin,  1886. 

2  Telles  (Alberto):  Lord  Byron  em  Portugal.  Lisboa,  1879. 





Byron  opens  his  Poem  with  an  invocation;  then 
treats  of  Childe  Harold's  discontent  and  of  his  last 
« Good-Night»,  and  in  the  xiv.  Stanza  proceeds  to  speak 
of  Portugal. 


On,  on  the  vessel  flies,  the  land  is  gone, 
And  winds  are  rude  in  Biscay's  sleepless  bay. 
Four  days  are  sped,  but  with  the  fifth,  anon, 
New  shores  descried  make  every  bosom  gay; 
And  Gintra's  mountain  greets  them  on  their  way, 
And  Tagus  dashing  onward  to  the  Deep, 
His  fabled  golden  tribute  bent  to  pay; 
And  soon  on  board  the  Lusian  pilots  leap, 
And  steer  'twixt  fertile  shores  where  yet  few  rustics  reap. 


Oh,  Christ  1  it  is  a  goodly  sight  to  see 
What  Heaven  hath  done  for  this  delicious  land! 
What  fruits  of  fragrance  blush  on  every  tree! 
What  goodly  prospects  o'er  the  hills  expand! 
But  man  would  mar  them  with  an  impious  hand: 
And  when  the  Almighty  lifts  His  fiercest  scourge 
'Gainst  those  who  most  transgress  His  high  command, 
With  treble  vengeance  will  His  hot  shafts  urge 
Gaul's  locust  host,  and  earth  from  fellest  foemen  purge. 



What  beauties  doth  Lisboa  first  unfold! 
Her  image  floating  on  that  noble  tide, 
Which  poets  vainly  pave  with  sands  of  gold, 
But  now  whereon  a  thousand  keels  did  ride 
OF  mighty  strength,  since  Albion  was  allied. 
And  to  the  Lusians  did  her  aid  afford: 
A  nation  swoln  with  ignorance  and  pride. 
Who  lick,  vet  loathe,  the  hand  that  waves  the  sword 
To  save  them  from  the  wrath  of  Gaul's  unsparing  lord. 


But  whoso  entereth  within  this  town. 
That,  sheening  far,  celestial  seems  to  be,. 
Disconsolate  will  wander  up  and  down, 
'Mid  many  things  unsightly  to  strange  ee; 
For  hut  and  palace  show  like  filthily; 
The  dingy  denizens  are  reared  in  dirt; 
No  personage  of  high  or  mean  degree 
Doth  care  for  cleanness  of  surtout  or  shirt. 
Though  shent  with  Egypt's  plague,  unkempt,  unwash'd,  unhurt. 


Poor,  paltry  slaves!  yet  born  'midst  noblest  scenes — 
Why,  Nature,  waste  thy  wonders  on  such  men  r 
Lo!  Cintra's  glorious  Eden  intervenes 
In  variegated  maze  of  mount  and  elen. 
Ah  me!  what  hand  can  pencil  guide,  or  pen, 
To  follow  half  on  which  the  eye  dilates 
Through  views  more  dazzling  unto  mortal  ken 
Than  those  whereof  such  things  the  Bard  relates. 
Who  to  the  awe-struck  world  unlock'd  Elysium's  gates? 



The  horrid  crags,  by-toppling  convent  crowned, 
The  cork-trees  hoar  that  clothe  the  shaggy  steep, 
.The  mountain  moss  by  scorching  skies  imbrown'd, 
The  sunken  glen,  whose  sunless  shrubs  must  weep, 
The  tender  azure  of  the  unruffled  deep. 
The  orange  tints  that  gild  the  greenest  bough, 
The  torrents  that  from  cliff  to  valley  leap, 
The  vine  on  high,  the  willow  branch  below. 
Mixed  in  one  mighty  scene,  with  varied  beautv  glow. 


Then  slowly  climb  the  many-winding  way, 

And  frequant  turn  to  linger  as  vou  go, 
From  loftier  rocks  new  loveliness  survev. 
And  rest  ye  at  «Our  Lady's  House  of  Woe»; 
Where  frugal  monks  their  little  relics  show, 
And  sundry  legends  to  the  stranger  tell: 
Here  impious  men  have  punish'd  been;  and  lo, 
Deep  in  yon  cave  Honorius  long  did  dwell, 
In  hope  to  merit  Heaven  bv  making  earth  a  Hell. 


And  here  and  there,  as  up  the  crags  you  spring, 
Mark  many  rude-carved  crosses  near  the  path; 
Yet  deem  not  these  Devotion's  offering  — 
Thes2  are  memorials  frail  of  murderous  wrath: 
For  wheresoe'er  the  shrieking  victim  hath 
Pour'd  forth  his  blood  beneath  the  assassin's  knife, 
Some  hand  erects  a  cross  of  mouldering  lath; 
And  g-rove  and  glen  with  thousand  such  are  rife 
Throughout  this  purple  land,  Avhere  Law  secures  not  life! 

4  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 


On  sloping  mounds,  or  in  the  vale  beneath, 
Are  domes  where  whilome  kings  did  make  repair: 
But  now  the  wild  flowers  round  them  only  breathe; 
Yet  ruined  Splendour  still  is  lingering  there, 
And  yonder  towers  the  Prince's  palace  fair: 
There  thou,  too,  Vathek!  England's  wealthiest  son, 
Once  form'd  thy  Paradise,  as  not  aware 
When  wanton  Wealth  her  mightiest  deeds  hath  done, 
.Meek  Peace  voluptuous  lures  was  ever  wont  to  shun. 


Here  didst  thou  dwell,  here  schemes  of  pleasure  plan, 
Beneath  von  mountain's  ever  beauteous  brow; 
But  now,  as  if  a  thing  unblest  by  Man, 
Thy  fairy  dwelling  is  as  lone  as  Thou! 
Here  giant  weeds  a  passage  scarce  allow 
To  Halls  deserted,  portals  gaping  wide; 
Fresh  lessons  to  the  thinking  bosom,  how 
Vain  are  the  pleasaunces  On  earth  supplied; 
Swept  into  wrecks  anon  by  Time's  ungentle  tide. 


Behold  the  hall  where  chiefs  were  late  convened! 
Oh!  dome  displeasing  unto  British  eve! 
With  diadem  hight  Foolscap,  lo!  a  Fiend, 
A  little  Fiend  that  scoffs  incessantly, 
There  sits  in  parchment  robe  arrayed,  and  bv 
His  side  is  hung  a  seal  and  sable  scroll. 
Where  blazoned  glare  names  known  to  chivalrv, 
And  sundry  signatures  adorn  the  roll, 
Whereat  the  Urchin  points,  and  laughs  with  all  his  soul. 



Convention  is  the  dwarfish  demon  styled 
That  foiled  the  knights  in  Marialva's  dome: 
Of  brains  (if  brains  they  had)  he  them  beguiled. 
And  turn'd  a  nation's  shallow  joy  to  gloom. 
Here  Folly  dash'd  to  earth  the  victor's  plume, 
And  Policy  regain'd  what  arms  had  lost: 
For  chiefs  like  ours  in  vain  may  laurels  bloom! 
Woe  to  the  conquering,  not  the  conquer'd  host. 
Since  baffled  Triumph  droops  on  Lusitania's  coast. 


And  ever  since  that  martial  Synod  met. 
Britannia  sickens,  Gintra,  at  thv  name; 
And  folks  in  office  at  the  mention  fret. 
And  fain  would  blush,  if  blush  they  could,  for  shame. 
How  will  Posterity  the  deed  proclaim! 
Will  not  our  own  and  fellow-nations  sneer. 
To  view  these  champions  cheated  of  their  fame, 
Bv  foes  in  fight  o'er  thrown,  vet  victors  here, 
Wnere  Scorn  her  finger  points  through  many  a  coming  year? 


So  deem'd  the  Childe,  as  o'er  the  mountains  he 
Did  take  his  way  in  solitary  guise: 
Sweet  was  the  scene,  vet  soon  he  thought  to  flee, 
More  restless  than  the  swallow  in  the  skies: 
Though  here  awhile  he  learned  to  moralize. 
For  Meditation  rix'd  at  times  on  him. 
And  conscious  Reason  whisper'd  to  despise 
His  earlv  vouth  misspent  in  maddest  whim; 
But  as  he  gazed  on  truth,  his  aching  eves  grew  dim. 



To  horse!  to  horse!  he  quits,  for  ever  quits 
A  scene  of  peace,  though  soothing  to  his  soul: 
Again  he  rouses  from  his  moping  iits, 
But  seeks  not  now  the  harlot  and  the  bowl. 
Onward  he  flics,  nor  fixed  as  vet  the  goal 
Where  he  shall  rest  him  on  his  pilgrimage; 
And  o'er  him  many  changing  scenes  must  roll, 
Ere  toil  his  thirst  for  travel  can  assuage, 
Or  he  shall  calm  his  breast,  or  learn  experience  sage. 


Yet  Mafra  shall  one  moment  claim  delay, 
Where  dwelt  of  yore  the  Lusians'  luckless  queen, 
And  Church  and  Court  did  mingle  their  arrav, 
And  Mass  and  revel  were  alternate  seen; 
Lordlfngs  and  freres  —  ill-sorted  fry,  I  ween! 
But  here  the  Babylonian  whore  had  built 
A  dome,  where  flaunts  she  in  such  glorious  sheen, 
That  men  forget  the  blood  which  she  hath  spilt, 
And  bow  the  knee  to  Pomp  that  loves  to  garnish  guilt. 


O'er  vales  that  teem  with  fruits,  romantic  hills, 
(Oh  that  such  hills  upheld  a  free  born  race!) 
Whereon  to  gaze  the  eye  with  jovaunce  fills, 
Childe  Harold  wends  through  many  a  pleasant  place. 
Though  sluggards  deem  it  but  a  foolish  chase, 
And  marvel  men  should  quit  their  easv  chair, 
The  toilsome  wav,  and  long,  long  league  to  trace, 
Oh!  there  is  sweetness  in  the  mountain  air. 
And  Life,  that  bloated  Ease  can  never  hope  to  share. 



More  bleak  to  view  the  hills  at  length  recede. 
And,  less  luxuriant,  smoother  vales  extend; 
Immense  horizon-bounded  plains  succeed! 
Far  as  the  eve  discerns,  withouten  end, 
Spain's  realms  appear,  whereon  her  shepherds  tend 
Flocks,  whose  rich  fleece  right  well  the  trader  knows 
Now  must  the  Pastor's  arm  his  lambs  defend: 
For  Spain  is  compass'd  by  unyielding  foes, 
An.  all  must  shield  their  all,  or  share  Subjection's  woes. 


Where  Lusitania  and  her  Sister  meet, 
Deem  ve  what  bounds  the  rival  realms  divide? 
Or  ere  the  jealous  Queens  of  Nations  greet, 
Doth  Tavo  interpose  his  mightv  tide? 
Or  dark  Sierras  rise  in  craeey  pride? 
Or  fence  of  art,  like  China's  vasty  wall?  — 
Ne  barrier  wall,  rie  river  deep  and  wide, 
Ne  horrid  crags,  nor  mountains  dark  and  tall, 
Rise  like  the  rocks  that  part  Hispania's  land  from  Gaul: 


But  these  between  a  silver  streamlet  glides, 
And  scarce  a  name  distinguisheth  the  brook, 
Though  rival  kingdoms  press  its  verdant  sides. 
Here  leans  the  idle  shepherd  on  his  crook, 
And  vacant  on  the  rippling  waves  doth  look, 
That  peaceful  still  'tvvixt  bitterest  foemen  flow: 
For  proud  each  peasant  as  the  noblest  duke: 
Well  doth  the  Spanish  hind  the  difference  know 
'Twixt  him  and  Lusian  slave,  the  lowest  of  the  low. 

8  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 

The  live  Notes  which  Lord  Byron  made  to  these 
Stanzas  will  be  quoted  in  the  next  Part.  Several  editors 
issue  Childe  Harold  without  any  notes;  they  forget 
that  these  were  intended  either  to  explain  the  text  or 
to  apologize  for  the  mistakes  made  in  it. 




On,  on  the  vessel  flies,  the  land  is  gone. 
And  winds  are  rude  in  Biscay's  sleepless  bav 
Four  days  are  sped,  but  with  the  fifth  anon1-. 
New  shores  descried  make  every  bosom  gav ; 
And  Cintra's  mountain  greets  them  on  their  way, 
And  Tagus  dashing  onward  to  the  deep. 
His  fabled  golden  tribute  bent  to  pav; 
And  soon  on  board  the  Lusian11-  pilots  leap. 
And  steer  'twixt  fertile  shores  where  vet  few  rustics  reap. 

I.  Four  days  are  sped,  but  with  the  fifth  anon. 
On  July  2,  1809,  Lord  Byron  sailed  from  Falmouth 
with  his  friend  Mr.  Hobhouse,  and  after  a  favourable 
voyage  landed  at  Lisbon  on  the  7th.  In  a  letter  to 
Hodgson,  dated  June  25,  he  says:  «I  leave  England 
without  regret — I  shall  return  to  it  without  pleasure. 
I  am  like  Adam,  the  first  convict  sentenced  to  transpor- 
tation, but  I  have  no  Eve,  and  have  eaten  no  apple  but 
what  was  sour  as  a  crab».  He  also  sends  his  friend 
in  the  same  letter,  posted  a  few  days  later  on,  his  Lines 
to  Mr.  Hodgson.  Written  on  board  the  Lisbon  packet, 
which  will  be  quoted  in  the  next  Part.  Among  the 
poet's  attendants  there  were  Fletcher,  his  valet,  faithful 
to  him  unto  the  end;  Joe  Murray,  his  old  butler;  and 
Robert  Rushton,  the  son  of  one  of  his  tenants.  He 
sent  back  to  England  the  latter  two  from  Gibraltar. 


Regarding  young  Rushton,  Byron  remarks:  «I  like  him, 
because,  like  myself,  he  seems  a  friendless  animata. 

II.  Lusian.  An  English  annotator,  in  an  edition  of 
Childe  Harold  published  in  191 3,  says  that  Lusian 
is  «more  correctly  Lusitanian.  Byron  seems  to  have 
coined  the  epithet  by  analogy  with  Camoens'  national 
epic,  the  Lusiad  (Os  Lusiadas)*.  Both  the  statements 
have  no  foundation. 

Lusian  in  English  is  as  correct  as  Lusitanian:  the 
former  is  an  adjective  from  Luso,  just  as  the  latter 
is  from  Lusitania.  The  word  Luso  has  existed  from  the 
time  of  the  Romans.  Pliny  says:  «Luso  enim  liberi  Pa- 
tris,  ac  Lysian  cum  eo  bacchantem,  nomen  dedisse  Lusi- 
tania*r.     And  Camoens  refers  to  the  same  word  thus: 

This  Lusitania  was;  in  whom  we  greet 
Luso,  or  Lysa,  who  the  offsprings  were, 
Or  friends,  of  ancient  Bacchus,  as  appears 
And  the  first  dwellers  there  in  early  years2. 

Up  to  the  time  of  Camoens  the  adjective  in  use  was 
Lysian,  but  probably  because  Lysa  or  Lisa  has  in  Por- 
tuguese other  meanings  the  form  Luso  was  preferred, 
and  the  great  poet  was  probably  the  first  to  use  it  this 
way.  In  English  the  word  Lusian  was  employed,  not 
to  go  further  back,  in  i655  by  Fanshaw  in  his  translation 
Of  the  Lusiads.  It  is  certainly  not  a  neologism  due 
to  Byron. 

Camoens  was  the  first  to  coin  the  word  Lusiadas, 
in  imitation  of  Iliadas,  from  Ilion,  commonly  known  as 

1  Plinius:  Naturalis  Historia; lih.  in.,  cap.  1. 

2  Camoens:  The  Lusiads,  translated  into  English  verse  hy  J. 
J.  Aubertin,  2  vol.  London,  1878,  Canto  III.,  St.  21,  11.  5-8. 


Troy;  or  in  imitation  of  AeneidaSj  the  work  or  doings 
of  Aeneas.  Os  Lusiadas  is  rendered  into  English  either 
as  The  Lusiad,, or  The  Lusiads,  the  former  being  more 
frequent  than  the  latter.  Lusiad  would  give  in  English 
Lasiadic  or  Lusiadan  but  not  Lusian. 

St.  XIV:  —  1.  5,  Cintra's  mountain.  Vid.  St.  XVIII. , 
N.  ii.  — 1.  7,  Golden  tribute,  lid.  St.  XVI.,  N.  i.  — 1.  9, 
Rustics  reap.  Shows  the  season  in  which  the  poet 
came  to  Lisbon. 


Oh,  Christ!  it  is  a  goodly  sight  to  see1- 
What  Heaven  hath  done  for  this  delicious  land! 
What  fruits  of  fragrance  blush  on  every  tree! 
What  goodly  prospects  o'er  the  hills  expand! 
But  man  would  mar  them  with  an  impious' hand: 
And  when  the  Almighty  lifts  His  fiercest  scourge 
'Gainst  those  who  most  transgress  His  hia;h  command. 
With  treble  vengeance  will  His  hot  shafts  urge 
Gaul's  locust  host11-    and  earth  from  fellest  foemen  purge. 

I.  A  goodly  sight  to  see.  In  his  Don  Juan  Byron 
says  that  ((description  is  his  forte ».  The  few  lines 
which  he  devotes  first  to  the  Tagus  and  then  to  Lisbon 
are  quite  characteristic  of  his  manner.  The  ideas  are 
not  new,  but  they  are  expressed  in  a  style  which  is 
quite  his  own.  And  how  irresistibly  superior  is  his 
talent  in  this  respect,  is  easily  seen  by  comparing,  for 
instance,  his  lines  with  those  of  Mickle  on  the  same 

Forgive,  fair  Thames,  the  song  of  truth  that  pays 
To  Tago's  empress-stream  superior  praise, 
O'er  every  vauntful  river  be  it  thine 
To  boast  the  guardian  shield  of  laws  divine; 


But  yield  to  Tagus  all  the  sovereign  state 
By  Nature's  gift  bestow'd  and  partial  Fate: 
The  sealike  port  and  central  sway  to  pour 
Her  fleets,  by  happiest  course,  on  every  shore. 
And  Lisboa  towering  o'er  lordly  stream 
Her  marble  palaces  and  temples  spreads 
Wildly  magnific  o'er  the  loaded  heads 
Of  bending  hills  i. 

As  regards  Lisbon  itself  there  are  a  couple  of 
glowing  descriptions  In  Portuguese  poetry  which  may 
be  recorded  here. 

Camoens  salutes  the  city  thus: 

E  tu  nobre  Lisboa,  que  no  mundo 
Facilmente  das  outras  es  princesa, 

Tu  a  quern  obedece  o  mar  prof  undo. 

And  thou,  proud  Lisbon,  who  midst  earth's  displays 

Princess  o'er  others  easily  dost  sway, 

Thou,  whom  the  deep  and  boundless  sea  obeys2 

C.  III.,  st.  ?7,  11.  i,  2  and  5. 

And  Pereira  de  Castro  characterises  it  by  saying: 

Aqui .  .  . 

Tendes  um  mundo  numa  Cidade 

A  quern  de  prata  e  de  ouro  o  Tejo  banha 

Em  signal  da  sua  eterna  gratidao  2. 

i  Mickle  (J.W.):  Poems  and  Tragedy.  London,  s.  d.,  pp.  192 
and  i(h).  Mickle  came  to  Lisbon  in  1770.  The  Kin^-Consort 
D.  Pedro  III.  gave  him  a  public  reception  in  recognition  of  the 
valuable  service  he  had  rendered  to  Portuguese  letters  by  trans- 
lating Os  Lusiadas  into  English.  The  King  was,  no  doubt,  led 
to  this  decision  by  the  Duke  of  Lafoes,  the  illustrious  patron  of 
letters,  and  the  founder  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences. 

-  Castro  (Gabriel  Pereira  de):  Ulyssea  011  Lisboa  Edificada. 
Lisboa,  1637,  C.  X.,  st.  i3~,  11.  1-4. 


Here  .  .  . 

You  have  in  one  Citv  a  whole  world. 
Bathed  by  the  Tagus  with  silver  and  gold 
In  token  of  eternal  gratitude. 

To  feel  the  full  effect  of  these  quotations  from  Ca- 
moens  and  Castro  it  is  necessary  to  read  them  in  the 

Those  interested  in  the  appearance  of  Lisbon  in  the 
days  of  Byron  will  find  in  Landmann's  Observations 
on  Portugal1  an  excellent  panoramic  view  more  than 
one  and  a  half  metres  long2. 

•(But  man  would  mar»,  says  Byron,  «the  fragrant 
fruits  and  the  goodly  prospects  with  an  impious  hand». 
This  is  an  allusion  to  the  ravages  committed  during  the 
Peninsular  War. 

II.  His  hot  shafts  urge  Gauls  locust  host.  In  the 
original  MS.  after  the  words  «his  hot  shafts  urge»  stood 
the  following  line: 

[The  Lusian  brutes,  and  earth  from  worse  of  wretches  purge?.] 

This  and  other  similar  lines  and  notes  are  quoted 
merely  to  show  how  strong  and  intense  was  Byron's 
prejudice  against  the  Portuguese.  A  French  annotator 
almost  resents  the  substitution.  It  would  have  been 
much  better  if  the  poet  had  retained  the  original  line, 

i  Landmann  (George):  Historical,  Military  and  Picturesque 
Observations  on  Portugal,  2.  vol.  London,  1821,  end  of  vol.  11. 

2  In  English  measures  1  metre  (m.)  is  equal  to  3.2  feet,  and 
1  kilometre  (km.)  to  of)  mile. 

3  The  quotations  referring  to  the  manuscript  are  from  the 
before  mentioned  Dallas's  Recollections  and  from  The  Works  of 
Lord  Byron:  Part  II.  Poetry,  edited  by  E.  H.  Coleridge,  7  vol., 
London,  1898-1904. 


for  it  shows  clearly,  at  the  very  commencement  of  his 
Pilgrimage  to  Portugal  what  his  frame  of  mind  was 
towards  the  Portuguese. 

The  French  invaded  Portugal  on  three  occasions. 
The  principal  aim  of  Napoleon  in  doing  so  was  to  com- 
plete the  Continental  blockade,  and  thereby  inflict  a 
blow  on  the  commerce  of  England. 

In  November  1807  Junot  marched  without  any  oppo- 
sition to  Lisbon.  The  influence  of  the  name  of  Napo- 
leon was  so  great,  and  his  military  genius  produced 
such  a  benumbing  influence  that  the  Prince  Regent  and 
his  government  thought  it  expedient  not  to  offer  any 
resistance  —  not  to  shed  the  blood  of  his  people  needless- 
lv.  Some  might  say  that  it  would  have  been  glorious 
to  fight  and  to  die.  But  the  Prince  Regent  thought 
otherwise,  and  he  with  his  insane  Mother  and  the  whole 
of" the  royal  family  fled  to  Brazil.  It  has  to  be  remem- 
bered that  on  this  occasion  Spain  had  joined  the  French 
and  that  their  combined  army  consisted  of  upwards  of 
5o,ooo  men.  The  English  government  of  those  days 
took  credit  to  themselves  for  the  flight  of  the  Prince 
Regent,  and  the  English  writers  condemned  the  Portu- 
guese for  not  fighting  the  French.  The  French  thought 
that  the  people  had  behaved  with  prudence,  but  that  it 
was  the  Prince  Regent  who  had  shown  the  white  feather. 
Both  parties  judged  in  the  light  of  their  own  interests. 
And  this  is  the  way  that  history,  especially  history  for 
the  general  public,  is  always  written.  When  the  people 
found  how  they  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  foreigner, 
whose  professions  entirely  belied  their  actions,  Avhen 
they  discovered  that  they  had  topay  a  contribution  of  one 
hundred  millions  of  francs  to  the  Emperor,  they  were 
furious  beyond  measure.     There  was  a  tierce  riot  when 


the  national  flag  was  hauled  down,  and  the  populace 
was  dispersed  only  after  a  heavy  charge  of  cavalry. 
The}r  did  all  they  could  to  get  rid  of  the  enemy,  and, 
as  soon  as  it  was  possible,  Revolutionary  Juntas  were 
formed  all  over  the  country,  especially  at  Oporto,  Bra- 
ganza,  and  Olhao.  In  the  spring  of  1808  Napoleon 
had  declared  war  against  his  friends  and  Allies,  the 
Spaniards,  and  occupied  Madrid  after  a  feeble  resistance 
of  only  two  days.  When  the  English  Government, 
who  were  on  the  look  out  for  a  weak  point  in  Napoleon's 
armour,  found  that  there  was  an  insurrection  in  Portu- 
gal, they  decided  to  help  their  ancient  ally.  Sir  Arthur 
Wellesley,  after  a  consultation  with  the  Supreme  Junta 
at  Oporto,  landed  with  an  expeditionary  force  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Mondego  in  August,  1808.  Soon  after- 
wards was  gained  the  victory  of  Yimeiro,  which  led  to. 
the  Convention  of  Cintra,  and  to  the  abandonment  of 
Portugal  by  Junot  with  his  French  troops. 

The  second  invasion,  which  took  place  in  March 
1809,  was  carried  out  by  Soult.  who  succeeded  in 
occupving  Oporto.  On  this  occasion  also  the  enemy 
was  driven  out  of  the  country  bv  the  combined  action 
of  the  Allies,  so  that,  when  Byron  came  to  Lisbon  in 
July,  there  was  not  a  single  French  soldier  on  the  Por- 
tuguese soil,  whereas  there  were  some  Luso-British 
troops  in  Spain  fighting  against  the  common  enemy. 

The  third  and  the  last  invasion  under  Massena 
occurred  in  August  18 10.  The  Portuguese  troops  on 
this  occasion  behaved  in  such  a  heroic  manner  that  they 
merited  the  applause  both  of  their  friends  and  foes, 
and  the  civil  population  showed  such  remarkable  pa- 
triotism that  there  was  a  complete  change  of  opinion 
in  England  regarding  their  character.     A  public  sub- 


scription  was  raised  in  Great  Britain  in  their  favour  in 
1811,  and  Parliament  went  so  far  as  to  make  a  public 
grant.  There  will  be  occasion  to  refer  to  some  of  the 
facts  connected  with  these  invasions  further  on. 

It  may  be  mentioned  here  that  Byron  was  a  great 
admirer  of  Napoleon.  During  the  Peninsular  War  he 
in  a  way  rather  sympathised  with  him  than  with  his 
own  people  or  his  own  government.  And  this  is  one  of 
the  reasons  why  his  poems  have  always  been  so  much 
admired  in  France. 


What  beauties  doth  LisboaL  first  unfold! 
Her  image  floating  on  that  noble  tide. 
Which  poets  vainly  pave  with  sands  of  gold11-. 
But  now  whereon  a  thousand  keels  did  ride 
Of  mighty  strength,  since  Albion  was  allied. 
And  to  the  Lusians  did  her  aid  afford: 
A  nation  swoln  with  ignorance  and  pride, 
Who  lick,  vet  loathe,  the  hand  that  waves  the  sword111- 
To  save  them  from  the  wrath  of  Gaol's  unsparing  lord. 

I.  Lisboa.  With  reference  to  this  word  Byron  wrote: 
[A  friend  advises  Ulissipont,  but  Lisboa  is  the  Portu- 
guese word,  consequently  the  best.  Ulissipont  is  pe- 
dantic; and  as  I  had  lugged  \n  Hellas  and  Eros  not 
long  before,  there  would  have  been  something  like  an 
affectation  of  Greek  terms,  which  I  wished  to  avoid. 
On  the  submission  of  Lusitania  to  the  Moors,  they 
changed  the  name  of  the  capital,  which  till  then  had 
been  Ulisipo  or  Lispo;  because,  in  the  Arabic  alphabet 
the  letter  p  is  not  used.  Hence,  I  believe,  Lisboa, 
whence  again,  the  French  Lisbonne,  and  our  Lisbon,  — 
God  knows  which  the  earlier  corruption !» —  Byron.  MS.] 


The  friend  referred  to  Is  Mr.  Dallas. 

The  word  Lisboa  is  generally  considered  to  have 
its  origin  in  all's  nbo  of  the  Phoenicians,  which  means 
a  pleasant  estuary.  Some  mediaeval  writers  have  attri- 
buted its  foundation  to  a  great-grandson  of  Abraham, 
fixing  the  date  at  the  year  3209  B.  C.;  and  others  to 
Eltsa,  a  great-grandson  of  Noah,  in  2i5o!  During  a  long 
time  it  was  supposed  that  its  origin  was  due  to  Llj'sses, 
who,  it  was  said,  came  to  Lisbon  after  the  siege  of 
Troy,  and  finding  the  city  in  ruins  rebuilt  it  and  gave 
it  the  name  of  Ulyssea.  It  is  with  reference  to  this 
that  Camoens  in  his  Os  Lusiadas  says: 

And  see'st  thou  one  who  treads  on  Tagus'  shore. 

After  o'er  such  vast  oceans  having  gone 

Where  everlasting  walls  he  rears  on  high 

And  Pallas'  temple  fresh  in  memory! 

Ulysses  'tis  the  Goddess'  fame  doth  raise 

She  who  on  him  eloquence  bestows; 

If  he.  in  Asia.Trov  in  ashes  lavs. 

In  Europe  here  by  him  vast  Lisbon  grows. 

C.  VIII,  st.  4,  11.  5-8,  and  st.  5,  !!.  [-4. 

In  the  xvii.  century  Antonio  de  Sousa  Macedo  based 
his  epic  poem  Olyssipo  upon  this  legend;  and  Pereira 
de  Castro  gave  the  name  of  Ulyssea  to  one  of  his  poems. 

During  the  Roman  period  the  Phoenician  word  Ali- 
subo  was  converted  into  Olisippo  (Yarro),  Olisipon 
(Ptolemy),  Ulysippo  (Pomponius  Mela),  and  Ulvssea 
(Strabo).  Officially,  during  the  reign  of  Julius  Cesar, 
it  was  given  the  name  of  Felicitas  Julia.  The  Moors 
styled  it  Aschbuna  orAschbouna.  And  the  Christians 
converted  it  first  into  Ulixbuna,  Lixbuna  and  Lixbona, 
and  afterwards  into  Lixboa  and  Lisboa.     Its  Latin  name 

1 8  childe  Harold's  pilgrimage. 

is  still  Olisipo.  It  is  curious  that  the  abbreviated  form 
of  the  word  Lisboa  even  now  is  Lx.a  and  not  Ls.a 
The  conversion  of  Lisboa  or  boa  into  bonne  in  French, 
and  bon  in  English  is  natural  enough. 

Byron  makes  a  casual  reference  to  the  view  of  Lis- 
bon in  a  letter  to  Moore,  m  which  he  says:  «I  sham  go 
to  Naples.  It  is  but  the  second  best  sea-view,  and  I 
have  seen  the  first  and  the  third,  viz.  Constantinople 
and  Lisbon  (by  the  way,  the  last  is  but  a  river-view; 
however  they  reckon  it  after  Stamboul  and  Naples,  and 
before  Genoa)  and  Vesuvius  is  silent*.  (Venice,  April 
u,  1817). 

II.  Poets  vainly  pai  e  with  sands  of  gold.  In  the 
manuscript  this  line  stood  thus: 

[Which  poets,  prone  to  lie.  have  paved  with  gold.] 

Byron  and  some  of  his  commentators  do  not  rely  on 
the  authority  of  poets  like  Ovid,  Juvenal,  Martial  and 
others,  and  so  reference  will  be  made  here  only  to  prose 
writers.  Pomponius  Mela  says :  «Et  Tagi  ostium  omnis 
gemmas  aurumque  generantisw1.  And  Pliny  writes: 
«Tagus  auriferis  arenis  celebratur»2.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  the  presence  of  gold  in  the  margin  of  the 
Tagus  was  well  known  to  the  Romans. 

During  the  Moorish  period,  according  to  Edrisi, 
the  extraction  of  gold  formed  one  of  the  occupations 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Al  Ma'dan  (at  present  Almada),  a 

1   Pomponius  Mela:  Dc  situ  orbis,  Li  v  III.,  cap.  1. 
-  Plinius:  Op.  cit.,  Lib.  IV.  cap.  35. 


village  just  opposite  to  Lisbon,  which  was  so  named  on 

account  of  its  sand  containing  gold.     He  says  that  he 
himself  saw  the  extraction  of  gold  there1. 

According  to  reliable  records,  in  the  xin.  century 
Don  Dinis  had  his  crown  and  sceptre  made  from  the 
gold  obtained  from  the  border  of  the  Tagus2.  The 
mines  were  situated  at  Adica  on  the  Ta^us  near  the 
lagoon  of  Albufeira.  In  the  first  quarter  of  the  last  cen- 
tury a  fresh  attempt  to  extract  gold  was  made  by  Jose 
Bonifacio  de  Andrada  e  Silva.  In  one  of  his  reports 
Sr.  Choifat3  gives  a  detailed  account  of  the  new  mine 
at  Adica,  styled  «The  Royal  Gold-Mine,  the  Prince- 
-Regentt).  The  profit  of  this  concern  from  1814  to 
1 8 19  was  about  £  ftbQ.  From  all  these  facts  it  is  clear 
that  poets  prone  to  lie  did  not  lie  in  this  instance. 

III.  Who  lick,  yet  loathe,  the  hand  that  waves  the 
sword,  a  Who  lick,  yet  loathes  is  a  poetic  alliteration 
which  is  not  to  be  taken  too  seriously,  for  a  poet  has 
a  right  to  certain  exaggerations.  But,  unfortunately, 
there  are  people  who  take  Byron's  words,  both  in  this 
and  his  other  references  to  the  Portuguese,  quite  lite- 
rally. No  Englishman  In  those  days  was  disliked  for 
being  an  Englishman,  without  some  special  cause. 
They  were  all  admired  for  their  fine  physique.      Dr. 

1  Edrisi:  Description  de  L'Afrique  et  de  L'Espagne  Pub.  et 
trad,  par  R.  Dozy  et  M.  J.  de  Goeje.  Leyde,  [866,  pg   223 

2  Vid.  Resendius  (L.  Andrea):  De  anliqtxitatibus  Lusitanice, 
2  vol.  Conimbricae,  1700,  vol.  11,  pg.  106. 

3  Ghoffat  (Paul):  Sur  les  sables  auri feres,  marine,  d' Adica, 
in  «Communicac5e3»  da  Commis  <ao  do  Service  Geologico  de 
Portugal,  vol.  ix.  Lisboa,  1912-1913,  pg.  5. 

*2o  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 

Halliday,  who  had  a  hundred  times  more  opportunities 
than  Byron  to  judge  the  character  of  the  Portuguese 
of  those  days,  and  who,  in  some  respects,  was  not  fa- 
vourably inclined  towards  them,  writes:  « Certainly 
there  never  was  a  body  of  people  more  united,  or  more 
sincerely  attached  to  the  British  than  the  Portuguese. 
I  am  sorry  to  add,  that  kindness  and  friendship  is  often 
not  requited  by  us  as  it  ought » l.  And  Southey,  writing 
some  years  later  remarks:  « There  were  members  (in 
Parliament)  who  boldly  asserted  that  the  Portuguese 
did  not  like  the  English.  A  more  groundless  assertion 
has  seldom  been  hazarded  there»2. 

Some  Englishmen  of  those  days,  especially  such  as 
had  suffered  in  their  material  interests,  owing  to  the 
French  invasion,  misrepresented  for  their  own  ends  not 
only  every  thing  that  the  Portuguese  did  or  said,  but 
even  distrusted  their  own  countrymen  like  Beresford 
and  Welleslev.  And  some  military  men  thought  noth- 
ing of  poking  fun  at  the  expense  of  their  Portuguese 
comrades;  and  these  had  no  means  of  defending  them- 
selves  or  explaining  their  conduct  to  the  public  in  Eng- 

St.  XVI:  —  1.  4,  Thousand  keels.  When  Byron 
came  to  Lisbon  the  English  fleet  was  anchored  in  the 
Tagus.  —  1.  7,  Ignorance  and  pride.  Vid.  St.  XXI.,  N.  i, 
for  Herculano's  and  Joao  de  Lemos's  opinion  on  this 

i  Halliday  (Andrew):  The  present  state  of  Portugal.  Edin- 
burgh, 1812,  pg.  296. 

2  Southey  (Robert):  History  of  the  Peninsular  }Yar.  New 
edition.  London,  1828,  vol.  11.,  part  r.,  pg.  3Sy. 



But  whoso  entereth  within  this  town. 
That,  sheening  far,  celestial  seems  to  be, 
Disconsolate  will  wander  up  and  down, 
'Mid  manv  things  unsightly  to  strange  ee1-; 
For  hut  and  palace  show  like  filthily: 
The  dingy  denizens  are  rear'd  in  dirt; 
No  personage  of  high  or  mean  degree 
Doth  care  for  cleanness  of  surtout  or  shirt; 
Though  shent  with  Egypt's  plague,  unkempt,  unwash'd,  unhurt11- 

I.  'Mid  many  things  unsightly  to  strange  ee. 
This  line  in  the  original  MS.  was: 

['Mid  many  things  that  grieve  both  nose  and  ee.] 

There  is  no  doubt  that  Lisbon  in  those  days  was 
dirty;  first,  because  the  border  of  the  Tagus  was  not 
vet  embanked,  and  the  foreshore  at  low  tide,  being 
exposed  to  a  width  of  240  to  36o  metres,  gave  rise  to 
obnoxious  inhalations;  and,  secondly,  because  the  inha- 
bitants were  in  the  habit  of  throwing,  after  22  o'clock, 
in  the  public  streets  all  the  house  refuse,  and  the  poorer 
classes  even  something  worse,  for  in  those  days  all  the 
quarters  of  the  town  were  not  provided  with  sewers. 
In  several  respects  it  was  neither  better  nor  worse  than 
some  other  large  commercial  seaport  towns  elsewhere. 
Had  Byron  commenced  his  journey  in  Asia  Minor  and 
ended  it  in  Portugal,  he  would  not  have  found  in  Lisbon 
so  «manv  things  unsightly  to  strange  ee».  In  1818, 
according  to  a  writer  in  the  Quarterly  Review  (vol.  xix., 
pg.  7),  there  were  three  stinking  cities  in  Europe,  namely, 


Lisbon,  Edinburgh  and  Geneva.     Probably  he  had  not 
visited  many  others. 

Compared  with  London  the  Portuguese  capital  has 
some  peculiarities  which  it  is  necessary  to  explain, 
especially  as  there  are  persons,  even  today  who  believe, 
in  all  good  faith,  that  Lisbon  is  not  a  clean  city.  It  is 
very  important  to  bear  in  mind  that  the  Praca  do  Comer- 
cio  or  the  Black-Horse  Square  corresponds  to  White- 
hall in  London,  in  which  are  to  be  found  almost  all 
the  Ministerial  Offices;  and  that  the  Rua  Aur^a  and 
Rua  Garrett,  the  counterparts  of  Regent  and  New  Bond 
Streets,  are  situated  in  the  centre  of  the  town  by  the 
side  of  the  river,  and  have  on  one  side  the  Arsenal,  the 
Ship-building  yard,  and  the  Fish-Market,  and  on  the 
other  the  Alfama  and  the  Mouraria,  that  is,  places 
corresponding  to  Poplar  and  Wapping  in  the  East  of 
London.  A  stranger  cannot  reside  long  in  Lisbon 
without  passing  through  or  quite  near  its  «East-End» 
quarters,  whereas  he  may  reside  in  London  the  whole 
of  his  life  without  going  even  once  to  its  East-End. 
This  is  the  reason  whv  some  of  the  streets  and  some 
of  the  people  one  sees  in  Lisbon  are  not  clean.  Working 
people,  especially  if  they  are  poor,  cannot  always  be 
clean.  Besides  all  this,  at  the  commencement  of  the 
last  century  the  middle  classes  considered  it  unbecoming 
to  walk  in  the  streets  of  Lisbon  on  week-days;  they 
came  out  only  on  Sundays !  Very  Likely  therefore  Bvr<  »n 
only  saw  the  lower  classes.  If  to-morrow  Black-Horse 
Square  could  be  bodily  removed  to  a  distance  of  one 
or  two  kilometres  to  the  north  of  the  Tagus,  Lisbon 
would  become  quite  clear,  as  though  by  a  miracle.  The 
residents  of  the  West-End  of  London  or  of  inland  towns, 
who  visit  Lisbon  for  the  first  time,  do  not  realise  manv 


of  these  facts,  but  those  who  come  from  Glasgow. 
Liverpool  and  such  other  sea-port  towns,  often  praise 
the  cleanliness  of  Lisbon,  for  they  know  from  experience 
how  difficult  it  is  to  keep  a  large  commercial  and  Indus,. 
trial  sea-port  quite  tidy  and  clean. 

An  instance  of  how  easily  people  can  misjudge  their 
neighbours  was  noticed  by  me  not  long  ago.  I  was 
walking  one  day  with  a  newly  arrived  Englishman  in 
the  Champs-Elysees  in  Paris,  when  he  suddenly  remark- 
ed: «Do  vou  know  the  French  people  must  be  really 
mad?  See  how  all  of  them  drive  towards  the  right !» 
My  friend  did  not  realise  at  once  that  other  people  could 
haye  rules  for  their  street  traffic  different  from  those 
in  Great  Britain. 

Thomas  Ribeiro,  one  of  the  greatest  Portuguese 
poets  of  the  last  century,  in  his  well-known  Ode  to 
Portugal,  after  referring  to  the  past  glories  of  his  coun- 
trymen, to  the  discoveries  of  new  seas  and  new  conti- 
nents, and  haying  in  mind  those  foreigners  who,  like 
Byron,  look  down  upon  the  Portuguese,  says: 

Se  alguem  menosprejar  o  teu  manto  pobre 
Ri-tu  do  fat  no  que  se  julga  nobre! 

If  any  scorn  thv  coat  of  poverty 
Laueh  at  the  fool  and  his  nobility!  i 

II.  Though  shen t  with  Egypt's  plague,  unkempt, 
umvasKd,  unhurt. 

Some  misapprehension  as  regards  the  meaning  of 
this  line   exists  in  the  minds  of  some  of  the  French 

1  Ribeiro  (Thomas):  «A  Portugal:  To  Portugal*,  in  Poems 
from  the  Portuguese,  by  Aubrey  F.  G.  Bell.  Oxford,  iqi3,  pg.  07. 


translators;  they  say:  «Kt  fuissent  Us  attaquee  de  la 
plaie  cTEgypte,  ils  n'en  donneraientpas  pour  cela  plus  de 
soins  a  leurs  personnes,  et  n'en  seraient  pas  plus  emus», 
or  «if  they  were  to  be  attacked  with  the  plague  of 
Egypt  they  would  not  take  more  care  of  their  persons 
or  be  more  moved".  The  meaning  of  the  line  is  not 
what  would  happen  but  what  did  happen  when  there 
was  such  a  plague  in  Lisbon.  The  plagues  of  Egypt, 
as  described  in  the  Exodus,  are  «ten»;  one  of  these  is 
the  plague  of  « flies  and  insects ».  Byron  evidently  re- 
fers to  this  plague,  for  in  his  letter  to  Hodgson,  w7ritten 
from  Lisbon,  he  complains  of  «bites  from  mosquitoes». 
It  may  be  mentioned  that  a  large  portion  of  Lisbon  is 
at  present  free  from  this  pest. 

St.  XVII:  —  1.  2,  Sheening.  Shining  or  glittering  from 
a  distance. 


Poor,  paltry  slaves!  vet  born  'midst  noblest  scenes  — 
Why,  Nature,  waste  thv  wonders  on  such  men1'? 
Lo !  Cintra's  glorious  Eden11,  intervenes 
In  variegated  maze  of  mount  and  glen. 
Ah  me!  what  hand  can  pencil  guide,  or  pen. 
To  follow  half  on  Avhich  the  eye  dilates 
Through  views  more  dazzling  unto  mortal  ken 
Than  those  w  hereof  such  things  the  Bard  relates. 
Who  to  the  awe-struck  world  unlock'd  Elysium's  gates? 

1.   Why,  Nature,  ivaste  thy  wonders  on  such  men? 

Byron  and  other  writers  who  think  with  him  that 
Nature  has  wasted  her  wonders  on  the  Portuguese  are 
quite  mistaken.  Nature  does  not  waste  her  gifts. 
The  Portuguese,  throughout  their  history,  have  shown 
themselves  the  products  of  their  environment.      They 



have  just  as  much  reason  to  be  romantic  and  idealistic 
as  the  Scotch  have  to  be  practical  and  hard  working. 
It  is  their  romantic  temperament  that  led  them  to  under- 
take voyages  of  discovery  known  to  every  school  boy. 
It  is  due  to  their  natural  surroundings  that  thev  have 
the  advantage  of  acclimatisation  in  many  parts  of  the 
world  where  people  from  the  north  degenerate  in  one 
(Y  two  generations;  it  is  owing  to  the  nature  of  their 
country  that  they  are  sober  and  temperate,  gay  and 
contented.  Those  who  are  interested  in  this  subject 
may  be  referred  to  the  chapter  on  the  influence  of  cli- 
mate upon  the  physiological  and  vital  functions  of  the 
body  and  mind  in  my  book  on  The  Climate  of  Portu- 
gal K 

II.  Lo!  Cintra9  s  glorious  Eden.  The  Mountains 
of  Cintra  are  situated  north-west  of  Lisbon,  and  are 
to  be  seen  by  all  those  who  enter  the  Bay  of  Cascaes. 
Byron's  description  of  Cintra  surpasses  that  of  every 
other  writer.  The  strokes  are  few,  but  they  give  an 
accurate  picture.  A  good  deal  of  the  renown  of  the 
place  among  English  speaking  people  is  due  to  him. 
There  are  writers  who  imagine  that  its  beauties  were 
never  recognised  before.  This  is  a  mistake.  Here  are 
a  few  brief  extracts  from  the  works  of  some  of  his  pre- 

Gil  Vicente,  the  great  dramatic  poet,  describes  it  in 

i 529  as: 

Um  jardim  do  paraiso  terreal 
Que  Salomao  mandou  aqui 
A  hum  Rei  de  Portugal. 

1  Dalgado  (D.  G.):  The  Climate  of  Portugal.  Lisbon,  1914, 
pp.  2 18-2  5 1. 


A  garden  of  the  paradise  terrestiaJ, 

Which  Solomon  sent  here 
To  a  king  of  Portugal.   ■ 

And  he  compares  it  to 

I  hna  damn  folida, 
Brava,  dulce  y  graciosa, 
Namomda  e  cngrandecidaK 

An  elegant  lady, 

Brave,  sweet,  and  charming, 

Noble,  proud,  and  loving. 

Luisa  Sigea  in  a  poem  entitled  Svntra,  which  she 
sent  to  Pope  Paul  III.  in  1546,  says: 

In  feme  vtridi  densatur  robora  fronda 
Silvano  et  Satvris  umbra  domos 

Citrea  mala  rubent,  vallis  qua  tandit  ad  imum, 

Qualis  fert  rutilans  hortulus  Hesperidum: 

Et  lauri  frondes,  vietorum  praemia  quondam, 

Quaeque  paetarum  texere  serta  solent: 

Et  mvrtus  Veneri  sacra  crispatur  in  umbra: 

Cuncta  placent  fructu,  floribus,  ac  redolent. 

Hie,  Philomela  canit,  turtur  gemit  atque  columba^: 

In  the  lower  portion  the  oaks  abound,  and  with 
their  dense  foliage  give  ample  homes  to  Silvanus  and 
Satyrus.  .  .  The  slopes  of  the  Serra  present  flourishing 
lemon  trees,  as  beautiful  as  those  found  in  the  garden 
of  the   Hesperides.      Here   are  to  be  found  the  leaves 

1  Vicente    (Gil):   «Triumpho    do    inverno»,   in    Obras,  3  vol. 
Hamburgo,  [833,  vol.  11.,  pp.  400  and  482. 

2  Vid.   Ribeiro   (Jose   Silvestre   de):   Luisa   Sigea.   Memoria 
apresentada  a  Academia  Rial  das  Sciencias.  Lisboa,  1869,  pg.  4?: 

not;:s  and  comments.  27 

of  the  laurel,  formerly  the  reward  of  the  victors,  but 
which  even  now  the  poets  place  round  their  foreheads. 
The  myrtle,  so  beloved  of  Venus,  grows  abundantly. 
Finally  everything  pleases  us:  the  luscious  fruits  and 
the  fragrance  of  flowers.  Here  sings  the  nightingale, 
and  coos  the  turtle  and  the  dove. 

Among  English  writers  Jeremiah  Thompson  sings: 

Oh  tell  me  what  Goddess,  what  Muse  or  what  Grace 
Could  ever  have  formed  such  a  beautiful  placer 
Here  are  Flora's  best  Mowers  in  full  blossom,  and  here  is 
The  work  of  Yertumnus,  Pomona  and  Ceres. 

The  author  then  says  that  Nature  had  collected  all 
her  materials,  and  was  about  to  group  her  rocks  and 
trees,  when 

something  did  intrude. 

And  therefore  she  left  it  wild,  beautiful  and  rude. 

And  Southey,  the  poet  laureate,  who  was  in  Portu- 
gal in  the  winter  of  1795  for  six  months,  and  again  in 
1 800- 180 1   for  a  year,  after  remarking  that  at  Cintra 

the  tired  mind 

Might  rest  beyond  the  murmurs  of  mankind. 

says:  «I  do  not  know  how  to  describe  to  you  the  strange 
beauties  of  Cintra;  it  is,  perhaps,  more  beautiful  than 
sublime,  more  gorgeous  than  beautiful,  vet  I  never  be- 
held scenery  more  calculated  to  fill  the  beholder  with 
admiration  and  delight.  This  immense  rock  or  moun- 
tain  rises  into  conical  hills,  formed  of  such  immense 
stones  and  piled  so  strangely  that  all  the  machinery  of 
deluges  and  volcanos  must  fail  to  satisfy  the  enqu;ry 
of  their  origin*.     He  then  describes  the  arid  looking 

28  childe  Harold's  pilgrimage. 

plains  away  from  Cintra,  and  adds:  «Had  I  been  born 
at  Cintra,  methinks  no  inducements  could  have  tempted 
me  to  leave  its  delightful  springs  and  shade*1. 

But  none  of  these  writers  attain  the  same  degree 
of  imagery  and  beauty  of  expression  as  Byron.  Cintra 
is  no  doubt  an  earthly  paradise; 

«If  on  earth  there  is  a  bower  of  Bliss, 
It  is  this  —  it  is  this  —  it  is  this !» 

St.  XVIII:  — 1.   i,  Paltry  slaves.  Vid.  St.  XXXIII., 

N.  i.  —  1.  8,  The  Bard.  Generally  believed  to  be  Dante, 
but  may  be  also  Virgil,  who  has  in  Book  VI.  of  Aeneid 
an  admirable  description  of  the  Elvsean  fields,  where 
Aeneas  meets  his  father  Anchises. 


The  horrid  crags,  bv  toppling  convent  crowned. 
The  cork-trees  hoar  that  clothe  the  shaggy  steep1. 
The  mountain  moss  bv  scorching  skies  imbrown'd, 
The  sunken  glen,  whose  sunless  shrubs  must  weep, 
The  tender  azure  of  the  unruffled  deep, 
The  orange  tints  that  gild  the  greenest  bough. 
The  torrents  that  from  cliff  to  valley  leap. 
The  vine  on  high,  the  willow  branch  below, 
Mixed  in  one  mighty  scene,  with  varied  beautv  glow. 

I.   T\\e  cor  J:  trees  hoar  that  clothe  the  shaggy  steep. 
These  trees  have  always  been  admired  by  foreign  visi- 

1  Southey  (Robert):  Letters  from  Spain  and  Portugal. 
Bristol,  1707.  The  third  edition  of  this  book  was  published  one 
year  before  Byron  came  to  Lisbon.  The  quotation  from  Jere- 
miah Thompson  is  given  in  these  Letters  on  pg.  5l<). 


tors  to  Cintra.  Southey  says:  a  The  cork  is  perhaps  the 
most  beautiful  of  trees,  its  leaves  are  small  and  have 
the  dusk\"  colour  of  evergreens...  There  is  one  tree 
in  particular  here  which  a  painter  might  well  come  from 
England  to  see,  large  and  old;  its  trunks  and  branches 
are  covered  with  ferns  — the  yellow  sun-burnt  ferns — 
forming  so  dark  a  contrast  to  the  dark  foliage !'»  This 
he  wrote  in  the  month  of  October.  Later  on  the 
appearance  of  such  trees  is  quite  different.  Then  the 
ferns  almost  completely  replace  the  leaves,  and  the 
whole  tree  forms  a  gigantic  bouquet  of  moss  and  ferns. 
St.  XIX:— 1.  1,  Toppling  convent.  Vid.  St.  XX.,  N.  i. 


Then  slowly  climb  the  many-winding  wav, 

And  frequent  turn  to  linger  as  you  go, 
From  loftier  rocks  new  loveliness  survey, 
And  rest  ye  at  «Our  Ladv's  House  of  Woe»: ' v    L 
-Where  frugal  monks  their  little  relics  show. 
And  sundry  legends  to  the  stranger  tell: 
Here  impious  men  have  punish'd  been ;  and  lo. 
Deep  in  von  cave  Honorius11-  long  did  dwell. 
In  hope  to  merit  Heaven  bv  making  earth  a  Hell. 

(A.)  The  convent  of  «Our  Lady  of  Punishment)) 
Nossa  Senora  de  Pena,  on  the  summit  of  the  rock. 
Below,  at  some  distance,  is  the  Cork  Convent,  where 
St.  Honorius  dug  his  den,  over  which  is  his  epitaph. 

1  Southey  (C.  C):  Southey's  Life  and  Correspondence  bv.  . . 
6  vol.  London,  1 849-1850,  vol.  11.,  pg.  1 17.  In  his  private  correspon- 
dence R.  Southev  is  loud  in  his  praises  of  Cintra;  he  stvles  it  «the 
most  blessed  spot  on  the  habitable  globe»,  «my  paradise,  the 
heaven  on  earth  of  my  hopes». 


From  the  hills,  the  sea  adds  to  the  beauty  of  the  view. 
(Note  to  i[  Edition).  Since  the  publication  of  this 
poem,  I  have  been  informed  of  the  misapprehension  of 
the  term  Nossa  Senora  de  Pena.  It  was  owing  to 
the  want  of  the  tilde  or  mark  over  the  n,  which  alters 
the  signification  of  the  word:  with  it,  Pena  signified  a 
rock;  without  it,  Pena  has  the  sense  I  have  adopted. 
I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  alter  the  passage,  as, 
though  the  common  acceptance  affixed  to  it  is  «Our  Lady 
of  the  Rock»,  I  may  well  assume  the  other  sense  from 
the  severities  practised  there.  (Note  to  the  2nd  Edi- 
tion.—B.  N). 

I.  Our  Lady's  House  of  Woe.  The  Monastery  of 
Pena,  which  is  now  incorporated  in  the  National  Palace 
of  Pena,  has  a  very  interesting  history.  It  wTas  built 
and  endowed  by  Dom  Manuel  I.  at  the  commencement 
of  the  xvi.  century,  to  commemorate  at  Cintra,  which 
was  his  favourite  residence  in  summer,  the  famous  dis- 
covery of  the  maritime  route  to  India  by  Vasco  da  Gama. 
Originally  its  site  was  occupied  by  a  chapel  dedicated 
to  Our  Lady  of  Pena,  erected  in  honour  of  the  mira- 
culous appearance  there  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.  In 
course  of  time  so  great  was  the  fame  of  this  shrine  that 
John  II.  having  fallen  ill  in  1493  at  Torres  Yedras,  made 
a  vow  to  make  a  novena  or  nine  days'  devotion  at  Our 
Lady  of  Pena  in  the  event  of  his  recovery;  and  he 
camped  out  there  with  the  Queen  and  fulfilled  his  vow 
with  great  piety  and  m  great  seclusion  '.     His  successor 

1  Vid.    Rezende    (Garcia    de):    Chronica    de    D.    Jo.lo    II, 
cap.  clxxi. 


Dom  Manuel  I.  was  in  the  habit,  it  is  said,' of  watching 
from  one  of  the  windows  of  the  chapel  die  Lusitanian 

Sea  for  the  arrival  of  the  ships  he  had  sent  out  to  the 
East.  When  he  received  the  happy  news  on  August 
29,  1499,  of  the  safe  return  of  the  expedition  ofVasco 
da  Gama  he  determined  to  replace  the  chapel  by  a 
Monastery,  which  he  handed  over  to  the  Hieronyrnites. 
At  the  commencement  it  was  occupied  bv  about  3o 
monks,  but  when  Byron  visited  it  the  inmates  did  not 
exceed  four  or  five.  Like  all  other  religious  houses  it 
was  suppressed  in  i83q;  its  chapel  is  now  the  chapel 
of  the  Palace.  The  Peak  of  Pena  attains  an  elevation 
of  328  metres  or  1,732  feet. 

The  Cork  Convent  or  the  Convent  of  the  Holv 
Cross,  popularly  known  in  Portuguese  as  Capuchos,  is 
situated  at  a  distance  of  four  kilometres  to  the  west  of 
Pena,  and  at  about  an  elevation  of  3oo  metres  or  o5o 
feet.  It  was  built  in  i56o  by  Alvaro  de  Castro  in  order 
to  carry  out  the  wishes  of  his  father  Dom  Joao  de  Cas- 
tro, the  famous  fourth  viceroy  of  India,  and  belonged 
to  the  Franciscans.  It  is  still  preserved  as  a  historical 
curiosity,  and  it  is  near  this  Convent  that  <othe  cave  of 
Honorius))  is  situated.  It  is  styled  Cork  Convent  on 
account  of  its  walls  and  doors  being  covered  with  cork 
as  a  protection  from  cold. 

Sir  Walter  Scott  pointed  out  to  Lord  Byron  that 
he  had  made  a  mistake  in  translating  Nossa  Senhora 
da  Pena  into  «Our  Lady  o£Woe».  Pena  in  Portuguese 
is  the  antiquated  form  of  Penha  and  does  not  require 
a  tilde,  as  Byron  thinks,  to  make  it  mean  a  rock.  Pena, 
a  rock,  is  derived  from  the  latin  pinna;  whereas  pena, 
sorrow  or  woe,  is  derived  from  poena.  The  form  in 
use  before  the  xvi.  century  was  pena,  as  in  Nossa  Se- 

32  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 

nhora  da  Pena,  Penamacor,  Penafiel,  Penacova,  etc.; 
whereas  in  all  modern  expressions  it  is  penha,  as  in 
Quinta  da  Penha  Verde,  Convento  da  Penha  Longa, 
Igreja  da  Penha  de  Franca,  etc.  In  the  Catholic  liturgy 
there  is  no  «Our  Lady  of  Woe»  nor  «Our  Lady  of 
Punishments,  but  Mater  Dolorosa,  Our  Lady  of  Dolours 
or  Our  Lady  of  Sorrow.  The  English  equivalent  of 
Nossa  Senhora  da  Pena  is  Our  Lady  of  the  Rock. 

In  his  Note  to  the  2nd  edition  Byron  says  that  he 
might  retain  in  the  text  «Our  Lady  of  Woe »  on  account 
of  the  severities  practised  there.  This  is  not  quite 
accurate.  The  Hieronymites  were  not  at  all  strict  or 
frugal  in  their  ways  of  life:  quite  the  reverse.  Those 
who  were  notorious  for  their  piety  and  for  their  ascetic 
practices  were  the  Franciscans.  Philip  II.  of  Spain, 
used  to  say  that  he  had  two  very  notable  religious  houses 
in  his  dominions:  the  Escurial  for  its  riches,  and  the 
Cork  Convent  for  its  poverty.  The  text  would  no 
doubt,  become  more  accurate  by  referring  the  whole 
description  to  the  Convent  of  Santa  Cruz  ( Holy  Cross) 
than  to  «Our  Lady's  House  of  Woe». 

At  the  commencement  of  the  last  century  one  of  the 
roads  leading  to  the  Convent  of  Pena  and  also  to  the 
Cork  Convent  started  from  the  Mansion  of  Seteais, 
called  «Marialva's  Dome»  by  Bvron,  and  to  be  referred 
to  further  on.  To  the  Cork  Convent  itself  there  was, 
and  still  is,  another  road  commencing  near  Monserrate. 
From  the  way  Cintra  is  described  it  is  probable  that 
Bvron  went  up  by  the  former  and  came  down  by  the 
latter.  It  is  believed  that  he  spent  one  or  two  days  in 
his  «glorious  Eden».  Not  long  ago  a  room  was  shown, 
in  what  was  known  as  Lawrence's  Hotel,  as  having 
been  occupied  by  him. 


II.  Honor ius.  This  Franciscan  monk  at  the  Cork 
Convent,  finding  the  tiny  cell  provided  for  him  top  good, 
dug  a  pit  near  by  about  a  metre  in  diameter,  and  lived 
there  day  and  night  for  thirty  years,  and  died  at  the 
ripe  age  of  ninety-five.  A  slab  near  the  pit  has  the 
following  inscription : 

Hie  Honorius 

vitam  finivit; 

Et  ideo  cum  Deo. 

in  coelis  reciv1t 

Obit  1596. 

Here  Honorius  ended  his  life; 

And  he  found  it  in  God. 

Died  in  1596. 

Byron  and  his  commentators  stvle  the  monk  St. 
Honorius.  He  has  no  right  to  be  styled  a  Saint,  for 
he  was  not  only  not  canonised  but  not  even  beatified: 
nor  is  his  name  found  among  the  venerables.  But  his 
manner  of  life  has  rendered  him  more  famous  than 
manv  a  saint. 


And  here  and  there,  as  up  the  crags  you  spring, 
Mark  manv  rude-carved  crosses  near  the  path: 
Yet  deem  not  these  Devotion's  offering — ■ 
These  are  memorials  frail  of  murderous  wrath: 
For  wheresoe'er  the  shrieking  victim  hath 
Pour'd  forth  his  blood  beneath  the  assassin's  knife, 
Some  hand  erects  a  cross  of  mouldering  lath,(A)L 
And  grove  and  glen  v\'ith  thousand  such  are  rife 
Throughout  this  purple  land,  where  Law  secures  not  life. 

(A.)  It  is  a  well  known  fact  that  in  the  year  1809 

the  assassinations  in  the  streets  of  Lisbon  and  its  vici- 


34  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 

nitv  were  not  confined  by  the  Portuguese  to  their  coun- 
trymen; but  Englishmen  were  daily  butchered,  and  so 
far  from  the  survivors  obtaining  redress,  they  were 
requested  «not  to  interfere »  if  they  perceived  their 
compatriot  defending  himself  against  his  amiable  allies. 
I  was  once  stopped  in  the  way  to  the  theatre,  at  eight 
in  the  evening,  when  the  streets  were  not  more  empty 
than  they  generally  are,  opposite  to  an  open  shop,  and 
in  a  carriage  with  a  friend,  by  three  of  our  allies;  and 
had  we  not  fortunately  been  armed  I  have  not  the  least 
doubt  we  should  have  «adorned  a  tale»  instead  of  telling 
one.  The  crime  of  assassination  is  not  confined  to 
Portugal:  in  Sicily  and  Malta  we  are  knocked  on  the 
head  at  a  handsome  average  nightly  and  not  a  Sicilian 
or  Maltese  is  ever  punished!  —  B.  N. 

I.  Some  hands  erect  a  cross  of  mouldering  lath. 
(Daily  assassinations  and  assaults).  The  Note  in  the 
MS.  was  much  longer.  After  saying,  «I  have  not  the 
least  doubt  we  should  have  'adorned  a  tale*  instead  of 
telling  one»,  it  continued: 

[We  have  heard  wonders  of  the  Portuguese  lately, 
and  their  gallantry  —  pray  heaven  it  continue;  yet 
«would  it  were  bedtime,  Hal,  and  all  were  well». 
They  must  fight  a  great  many  hours  by  the  ((Shrewsbury 
clock»  before  the  number  of  their  slain  equals  that  of 
our  countrymen  butchered  by  these  kind  creatures, 
now  metamorphosed  into  «Cacadores»  and  what  not. 
I  merely  state  a  fact  not  confined  to  Portugal,  for  in 
Sicily  and  Malta  we  are  knocked  on  the  head  at  a  hand- 
some average  nightly,  and  not  a  Sicilian  and  Maltese 
is  ever  punished!  The  neglect  of  protection  is  disgrace- 
ful to  our  government  and  governors,  for  the  murders 


are  as  notorious  as  the  moon  that  shines  upon  them. 
The  Portuguese,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  are  complimented 
with  the  «Forlorn  Hope-  —  if  the  cowards  are  to  become 
brave  (like  the  rest  of  their  kind,  in  a  corner)  pray  let 
them  display  it.  But  there  is  a  subscription  for  these 
@oao-jcb/:v  (they  need  not  be  ashamed  of  the  epithet 
once  applied  to  the  Spartans)  and  all  the  charitable 
patronymics,  from  ostentatious  A.  to  diffident  Z.,  and 
£  i-i-o  from  «an  admirer  of  valour »  are  in  requisition 
for  the  lists  of  Lloyd's  and  the  honour  of  British  bene- 
volence. Well,  we  have  fought  and  subscribed,  and 
bestowed  peerages,  and  buried  the  killed  by  our  friends 
and  foes,  and  lo!  all  this  is  to  be  done  over  again! 
Like  Lien  Chi  (in  Goldsmith's  Citizen  of  the  World) 
as  we  «grow  older  we  grow  never  the  better».  It  would 
be  pleasant  to  learn  who  will  subscribe  for  us,  in  or 
about  the  year  i8i5,  and  what  nation  will  send  fifty 
thousand  men,  first  to  be  decimated  in  the  capital,  and 
then  decimated  again  (in  the  Irish  fashion,  nine  out  of 
ten)  in  the  «bed  of  honour»  which  as  Serjeant  Kite  says, 
is  considerably  larger  and  more  commodious  than  the 
«bed  ofWare».  Then  they  must  have  a  poet  to  write 
the  ((Vision  of  Don  Perceval »  and  generously  bestow  the 
profits  of  the  well  and  widelv  printed  quarto  to  rebuild 
the  ((Bachwynd»  and  the  « Canon-gate »,  or  furnish  new 
kilts  for  the  half-roasted  Highlanders.  Lord  Welling- 
ton, however,  has  enacted  marvels,  and  so  did  his  oriental 
brother,  whom  I  saw  chareteering  over  the  French  flag, 
and  heard  chipping  bad  Spanish,  and  listening  to  the 
speech  of  a  patriotic  cobbler  of  Cadiz,  on  the  event  of 
his  own  entrv  into  that  city,  and  the  exit  of  some  five 
thousand  bold  Britons  out  of  this  «best  of  all  possible 
worlds».     Sorely  were  we  puzzled  how  to  dispose  of 

36  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 

that  same  victory  ofTalavera;  and  a  victory  it  surely 
was  somewhere,  for  everybody  claimed  it.  The  Spanish 
dispatch  and  mob  called  it  Cuestas  and  made  no  great 
mention  of  the  Viscount*,  the  French  called  it  theirs 
(to  my  great  discomfiture,  for  a  French  consul  stopped 
my  mouth  in  Greece  with  a  pestilent  Paris  Gazette, 
just  as  I  had  killed  Sebastiani  «in  buckram»  and  King 
Joseph  in  «Kendal  green»)  —  and  we  have  not  yet  deter- 
mined what  to  call  it,  or  whose  for  certes  it  is  none  of 
our  own.  Howbeit,  Massena's  retreat  is  a  great  com- 
fort, and  as  yet  we  have  not  been  in  the  habit  of  pur- 
suing for  some  years  past,  no  wonder  we  are  a  little 
awkward  at  first.  No  doubt  we  shall  improve,  or  if 
we  do  not,  we  have  only  to  take  to  our  old  way  of 
retrograding,  and  there  we  are  at  home.] 

Dallas  objected  to  the  whole  Note  as  a  «wTild  tirade» 
and  Byron  agreed  to  omit  its  larger  portion.  Once 
again  in  1812  the  noble  lord  shows  in  the  suppressed 
portion  his  bitter  animosity  against  the  Portuguese. 
He  calls  them  cowards  and  0pao-j^£i/dv  or  those  who 
affect  the  hero  and  play  the  poltroon;  he  is  sarcastic 
against  his  own  countrymen  for  raising  a  public  sub- 
scription (which  amounted  to  £  81,079)  in  tneir  favour, 
and  ridicules  Walter  Scott  (who  was  not  yet  his  friend) 
for  praising  them  in  his  Vision  of  Don  Roderick,  and 
for  giving,  very  generously,  all  the  profits  of  its  sale  to 
the  cause  of  Portuguese  patriotism. 

Byron  refers  in  the  text  to  crosses  of  mouldering 
lath  as  a  proof  of  the  frequency  of  assassinations  in 
Portugal.  This  is  an  instance  of  how  foreigners  mis- 
judge their  neighbours.  These  crosses,  some  of  which 
still  exist,  had  nothing  to  do  with  assassinations;  they 


were  planted  there,  by  the  roadside,  to  appeal  to  the 
wayfarers'  feelings  of  piety.  The  mistake  was  pointed 
out  in  the  Invest  igador  Portugues,  a  monthly  periodical 
published  in  London,  six  weeks  after  the  publication 
of  CJu'lde  Harold,  but  it  did  not  attract  the  attention 
of  commentators  till  July  9,  1878,  when  a  letter  on  the 
same  subject  appeared  in  the  Athenaeum.  This  shows 
how  anything  written  in  Portuguese  is  almost  a  dead 
letter  to  foreigners.  The  smouldering  lath»  is  a  glaring 
instance  of  how  writers,  even  of  the  eminence  of  Emi- 
lio  Gasteliar,  accept  as  facts  what  Byron  said  of  the 
horrible  homicides1,  although  he,  and  others  like  him, 
are  careful  to  point  out  how  the  poet  was  unjust  in  some 
of  his  remarks  against  their  own  people.  There  was 
a  reason  for  the  existence  of  these  crosses  at  Cintra. 
The  founder  of  the  Convent  of  Santa  Cruz  had  laid 
down  in  his  will  that  it  was  his  particular  wish  that 
the  Cross  should  receive  special  adoration. 

In  the  first  portion  of  the  published  Note,  Byron  says 
that  in  1809  there  were  daily  assassinations  of  English- 
men in  the  streets  of  Lisbon.  Now,  what  are  the  facts  ? 
Let  English  writers  themselves  answer  the  question. 
Mr.  Oman,  the  latest  historian  of  the  Peninsular  War, 
says  that  in  February  1809  ((isolated  British  soldiers 
were  assaulted,  some  were  wounded,  and  parties  of 
4egionaires'  (Portuguese )  actually  stopped  aides-de-camp 
and  orderlies  carrying  despatches,  and  stripped  them 
of  the  documents  they  were  bearing.  The  mob  was 
inclined,  indeed,  to  be  ill  disposed  towards  their  allies, 

1  Castelar  (Emi'lio):  A  Vida  de  Lord  Byron,  traduzida  por 
M.  Fernandes  Reis.  Porto,  1876,  pg.  ?ij. 

38  childe  harold's  pilgrimage. 

from  the  suspicion  that  they  were  intending  to  evacuate 
Lisbon  and  to  retire  from  the  Peninsula.  They  had 
seen  the  baggage  and  non-combatants  left  behind  by 
.Moore  put  on  ship-board;  early  in  February  they  beheld 
the  troops  told  off  for  the  occupation  of  Cadiz  embark 
and  disappear.  When  they  also  noticed  that  the  forts 
at  the  Tagus  mouth  were  being  dismantled  they  made 
up  their  minds  that  the  British  were  about  to  desert 
them,  without  making  any  attempt  to  defend  Portugal. 
Hence  came  the  malevolent  spirit  they  displayed.  It 
died  down  when  their  suspicions  were  proved  unfounded 
by  the  arrival  of  Beresford  and  other  British  officers 
at  the  beginning  of  March))1.  It  will  be  remarked  that 
the  writer  attributes  the  malevolence  to  the  actions, 
right  or  wrong,  of  the  British  officers  themselves. 
Southey  makes  on  the  subject  the  following  remarks: 
((Preparations  had  been  made  for  evacuating  that  ca- 
pital (Lisbon);  transports  were  collected  in  the  Tagus, 
and  notice  officially  given  to  the  British  merchants  to 
hold  themselves  in  readiness  for  immediate  embar- 
kation in  case  the  enemy  should  advance  towards 
them».  And  he  adds  further  on:  «One  day  the  cavalry 
was  embarked,  the  next  it  was  relanded.  The  sea 
batteries  were  dismantled,  and  their  guns  shipped  for 
Brazil;  those  at  Fort  Julian  alone  were  left  mounted, 
as  a  defensive  post  if  the  British  troops  should  be  forced 
to  embark  precipitately.  The  women  belonging  to  the 
army  were  sent  on  board.  These  preparations  exas- 
perated the  people.  The  feeling  which  this  intended 
abandonment    produced   was    rather   anger   than   fear; 

i   Oman  (Charles):  A  History  of  the  Peninsular  War.  Vol.  iv. 

(Published  up  to  date).  Oxford,  1892-191  1.  vol.  n.,  pg.  200. 


and  they  resented  it  the  more  as  if  they  felt  ashamed 
for  allies  long  trusted  an  J  always  found  worthy,  than 
alarmed  for  the  consequences  to  themselves-'1.  And 
Napier  also  described  the  same  facts  and  does  not 
notice  the  murder  of  a  single  Englishman2.  In  fact 
there  is  not  one  English  writer  who  mentions  a  single 
murder  of  an  Englishman  in  the  streets  of  Lisbon  in 
1809.  On  the  contrary  there  is  a  Police  Report,  dated 
March  4,  of  the  murder  of  a  Spaniard  by  three  English- 
men, due  to  a  quarrel  regarding  some  women  of  loose 
character3.  All  this  shows  how  Byron  was  completely 
mistaken  about  the  « daily  assassinations))  of  English- 
men in  the  streets  of  Lisbon,  in  1809.  One  of  his 
biographers  goes  a  step  further  and  says  that  some 
of  these  assassinations  were  due  to  religious  causes! 
How  such  an  idea  entered  his  head  it  is  not  easy  to  say. 
Only  to  show  how  tittle  Byron  knew  of  the  behaviour 
of  some  of  his  own  countrvmen  in  Portugal  and  of  the 
behaviour  of  the  Portuguese  towards  them,  I  will  quote 
here  the  opinion  not  of  any  Portuguese  writer  but  of 
Wellington  himself.  In  a  long  official  dispatch  address- 
ed to  the  Adjutant  General  of  the  Forces,  dated  6th 
April,  18 10,  after  noticing  how  frequent  were  the  deser- 
tions among  his  men,  he  says  that  they  are  due  «in  a 

1  Southey    (R.):   History  of  the   Peninsular   War.   Op.   cit., 
vol.  11.,  Part  I.,  pp.  2 1 5  and  217. 

2  Napier  (Sir  W.  F.  P.):  History  of  the  War  in  the  Peninsula 
and  in  the  South  of  France.  6  vol.  London,  s.  d.  Book  VI ,  ch.  in.. 

PS-  "• 

3  Intendencia  geral  da  Policia.    Contas  para  a   Secretaria. 

Desde  2g  de  Outubro  de  1808  ate  3  de  Dejembro  de  i8og,  in  the 

National  Archives  (Torre  do  Tombo).   Liv.  x.,  pp.   82,   87,   and 
1 10  v,  dated  March  4  and  i3,  and  April  5. 


great  measure  to  the  bad  description  of  men  of  which 
many  of  the  regiments  are  composed  almost  entirely, 
and  who  have  been  received  from  the  Irish  militia... 
and  likewise  in  some  degree  to  the  predatory  habits 
they  have  acquired,  who,  having  straggled  from  their 
regiments  during  the  late  service  under  the  command 
of  Sir  John  Moore,  were  some  of  them  taken  prisoners 
by  the  French,  and  have  since  escaped  from  them; 
and  others  after  having  wandered  in  different  parts  of 
Portugal  and  Spain,  have  returned  to  the  army.  All 
these  men  have  shifted  for  themselves  in  the  country, 
by  rapine  and  plunder,  since  they  quitted  their  regiments 
in  1808;  and  they  have  informed  others  of  their  mode 
of  proceeding,  and  have  instilled  a  desire  in  others  to 
follow  their  example,  and  live  in  the  same  mode  and 
by  the  same  means,  free  from  the  restraints  of  discipline 
and  regularity.  It  is  proper  that  I  should  inform  the 
Commander  in  Chief  that  desertion  is  not  the  only  crime 
of  which  the  soldiers  of  this  army  have  been  guilty  to 
an  extraordinary  degree.  A  detachment  seldom. mar- 
ches, particularly  if  under  the  command  of  a  non-com- 
missioned officer  (which  rarely  happens)  that  a  murder 
or  a  highway  robbery,  or  some  act  of  outrage  is  not 
committed  by  the  British  soldiers  composing  it.  Thev 
have  killed  eight  people  since  the  army  returned  to 
Portugal  in  December;  and  I  am  sorry  to  add  that  a 
convoy  has  seldom  arrived  with  money  that  the  chests 
have  not  been  broken  open,  and  some  of  the  money 
stolen  by  the  soldiers  in  whose  charge  it  was  placed, 
although  invariably  under  the  command  of  an  officer». 
And  after  stating  the  measures  taken  to  prevent  these 
crimes  he  continues,  «The  inhabitants  of  the  country 
have  such  a  respect  and  affection  for  the  British  nation, 


and  particularly  for  the  military  qualities  of  the  soldier 

(who  presumes  upon  his  military  reputation  to  commit 
many  of  the  crimes  oi  which  he  is  guilt)  I,  that  it  is 
most  difficult  to  prevail  upon  the  inhabitants  to  give 
testimony  of  the  injuries  they  have  received,  and  they 
will  rarely  point  out  the  person  who  has  committed  the 
offence;  and  the  soldiers  themselves  will  rarely  tell  the 
truth  before  a  Court  Martial))1.  In  justice  to  the  British 
forces  of  those  days  it  is  necessary  to  make  it  quite  plain 
that  the  crimes  referred  to  were  not  committed  by  the 
regular  troops;  and  it  has  to  be  added,  to  the  honour  <  1 
Wellington,  that  he  did  his  utmost  to  control  his  men. 
From  all  that  has  been  stated  it  is  not  to  be  supposed 
that  no  British  soldier  was  killed  in  Lisbon  or  in  Por- 
tugal. There  Ave  re  such  murders.  But  the  reader  can 
imagine  who  was  likely  to  be  primarily  responsible  in 
such  cases.  Excluding  retaliation  or  self-defence  a  Por- 
tuguese  had  nothing  to  gain  by  killing  a  Britisher,  but 
a  Britisher  could  look  forward  to,  in  the  words  of 
Wellington,  «rapine  and  plunder^. 

As  regards  the  intended  assault  referred  to  in  the 
second  portion  of  the  Note,  which  Byron  describes 
with  so  much  gusto  and  not  without  considerable  swag- 
ger, it  must  be  observed  that  in  Jul}'  1S09,  when  he 
came  to  Lisbon,  there  was  absolutely  no  prejudice 
against  an  Englishman  as  an  Englishman.  All  suspi- 
cions had  died  out  in  March.  In  April  Lord  Wellesley 
had  been  received  with  open  arms,  in  fact  with  public 
rejoicings.      Then  why   the  intended  assault?      Byron 

1    V^elling  ton's  Dispatches.  New  Edition.  12  vol.  London,  i83y. 
I  have  quoted  only  the  dates  of  his  Dispatches. 


d<  es  not  give  any  reason.      He  only  allows  it  to  be 

supposed  because  he  was  an  Englishman. 

But  there  was  unfortunately  another  assault  which 
the  young  lord  had  to  submit  to  owing  to  a  heedless 
love  affair.  One  night,  while  leaving  the  theatre  of 
San  Carlos,  he  was  roughly  handled  by  an  aggrieved 
husband  for  flirtation  with  his  wife.  This  fact  is  attest- 
ed by  several  writers.  In  his  Moral  Studies  written 
in  1^44,  Alexandre  Herculano,  the  eminent  historian. 
says,  that  Byron,  who  imagined  that  the  Portuguese 
were  so  ignorant  that  he  could  do  with  them  as  he 
liked,  received  some  severe  cachacoes  or  blows  when 
leaving  the  theatre1.  And  in  a  cancdo  or  song  ad- 
dressed to  Bvron,  Joao  de  Lemos,  a  well-known  poet, 
records  the  same  incident  thus: 

A  nossa  ignordncia  achaste  tao  rude 
Por  serios  maridos  a  char  ainda  aqui, 
Que,  quando  buscavas  man  char  a  virtude, 
Nas  costas  as  manchas  te  punham  a  ti^. 

You  found  ignorant  and  rude  all  of  us, 

For  finding  here  husbands  very  serious. 

Who,  when  you  wished  to  stain  their  wives'  honour. 

Stained  vour  body  with  something  to  remember. 

Byron's  temperament  was  such  as  would  not  stand 
any  rebuke,  and  much  less  humiliation  of  this  kind. 
In  his  Preface  to  English  TSards  and  Scotch  Reviewers, 
published  only  a  few  months  before  he  came  to  Portu- 
gal, lie  says  that  he  is  always  determined  to  take  revenge 

1  Herculano  (Alexandre):  Estudos  Morais.  II.  «0  Parocho  de 
Aldeia»,  in  O  Panorama.  Lisboa,  1844,  pg.  1 19. 

3  Lemos  (Joao  de) :  Cancioneiro.  2  vol.  Lisboa  iS5o,  vol.  11., 
pg.  242. 


((though  his  own  hand  suffer  in  the  encounter®.  Tin's 
accounts  for  his  rage  and  rancour  against  the  Portu- 
guese.  The  Portuguese  woman  was  really  a  sore  point 
with  him.  Everywhere  else, women,  of  no  matter  what 
nationality,  were  always  uppermost  in  his  mind.  In  Por- 
tugal he  does  not  make  the  faintest  allusion  to  them, 
although  one  of  his  own  countrymen  had  described 
them  as  ^infinitely  the  finest  that  Man  can  imagine))1. 
In  this  respect  his  experiences  in  Spain,  as  will  be 
noticed  further  on,  were  quite  different. 

Lord  Byron's  rage  against  the  Portuguese  was  so 
great  that  he  kept  his  eyes  wide  open  to  see  whatever 
might  be  said  against  them.  In  his  Curse  of  Minerva 
written  on  March  i3,  1811,  but  published  only  after 
his  death,  he  says: 

«But  Lusitania  kind  and  dear  ally 

Can  spare  a  few  to  fight  and  sometimes  fly». 

«Sometimes  fly»  is  an  allusion  to  the  Portuguese 
troops  who  took  part  in  the  battle  of  the  Gebora  in  Spain. 
In  his  description  of  the  Spanish  disaster  there,  Mr. 
Oman  says:  ((The  battle  of  the  Gebora  was  lost  almost 
before  a  shot  had  been  tired,  for  on  seejng  themselves 
threatened  in  flank  and  about  to  be  charged  by  Latour- 
-Mauburg,  the  Spanish  and  the  Portuguese  horse  broke 
in  the  most  disgraceful  style...  The  cavalry  oi  the 
Army  of  (the  Spanish)  Estremadnra  had  a  bad  reputa- 
tion—  they  were   the   old   squadrons   of  Medallis    and 

i  Vid.  Rhys  (Udal  ab) :  An  account  of  the  most  remarkable 
places  and  curiosities  in  Spain  and  Portugal.  London,  1749, 
pg.  219.  There  are  several  other  foreigners  who  describe  the  Por- 
tuguese women  in  a  similar  strain. 


Arzobispo,  of  which  Wellington  preserved  such  an  e\  il 

memory,  and  Madden 's  Portuguese  this  day  behaved 
no  better>»'.  Now  let  us  see  what  was  Wellington's 
opinion  of  the  Portuguese  troops.  In  his  dispatch, 
dated  2o,h  May,  1809,  he  says:  al  know  of  no  troops 
that  could  have  behaved  better  than  the  Lusitanian 
Legion  did  at  Alcantara  the  other  day».  From  these 
antecedents  the  reader  can  imagine  whose  behaviour 
was  Likely  t()  be  disgraceful.  It  has  to  be  remembered 
that  the  Spanish  force  on  this  occasion  consisted  of 
2,000  cavalry,  and4,5oo  infantry  supported  by  000  Por- 
tuguese horse;  and  the  French  of  2,5oo  cavalry,  4,5op 
infantry,  and  12  guns.  These  figures  clearly  show  that 
the  Portuguese  could  not  be  expected  to  face  the  enemy 
when  left  alone  in  the  field. 


O.i  sloping  mounds,  or  in  the  vale  beneath, 
Are  domes  where  whilofne  kings  did  make  repair; 
But  now  the  wild  flowers  round  them  only  breathe; 
Yet  mine  J.  Splendour1-  still  is  lingering  there, 
And  yonder  towers  the  Prince's  palace"-  fair: 
There  thou,  too,  Vathek!  England's  wealthiest  son, 
Once  form'd  thv  Paradise  UL,  as  not  aware 
When  wanton  Wealth  her  mightiest  deeds  hath  done, 
Meek  Peace  voluptuous  lures  was  ever  wont  to  shun. 

I.  Domes  where  whilome  kings  did  repair. . .  ruined 
Splendour.  This  is  a  pure  poetical  phantasy.  Besides 
the  ('Prince's  Palace »  there  were  no  other  royal  domes 
in  former  days  on  the  sloping  mounds  or  in  the  vale 

1  Oman  (Charles):  Op.  c/7.,vol.  iv  ,  pg    56.  The  italics  are  mine. 


beneath.  But  such  fancies  do  no  harm.  It  is  curious, 
however,  that  Byron's  admirable  description  of  (antra 
makes  no  reference  to  the  old  and  justly  famous  Moorish 
Castle.  In  stanza  XIX.  it  would  have  been  much  more 
appropriate  to  allude  to  «the  toppling  Castle»  instead  of 
to  the  «toppling  Convent)).  The  Castle  dates  from  the 
time  of  the  Moors,  and  is  one  of  the  two  oldest  monu- 
ments of  Cintra. 

The  only  ruins  which  could  be  styled  « ruined  Splen- 
dour)) were  those  of  the  Moorish  Castle.  Beckford 
makes  a  reference  to  its  ((mouldering  walls))1  and  says 
that  he  found  there  many  curious  plants.  A  commen- 
tator has  suggested  that  Byron  might  have  seen  what 
Beckford  had  said  on  the  subject.  This  could  not  be 
the  case,  for  Beckford  came  to  Portugal  in  1787,  and 
his  letters  referring  to  this  country  were  published  only 
in  1834.  His  Dreams,  Waking  Thoughts  and  Incidents, 
in  a  Series  of  Letters  from  various  parts  of  Europe, 
published  in  1783  and  soon  withdrawn  from  circulation, 
could  not  possiblv  contain  his  letters  on  Portugal.  A 
full  description  of  these  ruins,  with  an  engraving,  had 
been  given  by  Murphy2  in  1796.  In  the  fifties  of  the 
last  century  Don  Fernando  repaired  the  Castle  to  a 
great  extent,  and  its  appearance  now  is  quite  different 
from  what  it  w7as  in  the  days  of  Byron. 

II.  And  fonder  towers  the  Prince  s  palace  fair. 
This  palace  has  been  identified  by  a  recent  English 
annotator  with  the  « Castle  of  Pena»:  and,  as  such  a 

1  Italy  with  Sketches  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  by  the  author 
of  Vathek.  2  vol.  London,  1884,  vol.  11.,  pg.  180. 

2  Murphy  (James):  Travels  in  Portugal,  London,  179-S pg.  245. 

46  childe  Harold's  pilgrimage. 

mistake  is  likely  to  become  perpetuated  it  is  necessary 
to  point  out  that  the  Castle  or  Palace  of  Pena  came 
into  existence  only  after  1839,  when  the  ruins  of  the 
old  Convent  of  Pena  with  its  enclosure  was  bought  by 
Don  Fernando,  the  King-Consort  of  Dona  Maria  II. 
The  Palace  referred  to  by  Byron  is  the  National  Palace 
of  Cintra,  situated  lower  down.  He  styles  it  the  ((Prin- 
ce's palace»  probably  because  the  head  of  the  kingdom 
in  his  day  was  the  Prince-Regent.  This  Palace  with 
its  two  enormous  and  very  « towering »  conical-shaped 
chimneys  belonged  originally  to  the  Moors.  It  owes  its 
present  appearance  chiefly  to  King  John  I.  and  his  wife 
Queen  Philippa,  and  to  Manuel  I.  It  is  a  building 
with  great  historical  associations.  Queen  Maria  Pia 
was  its  last  royal  resident.  The  Count  of  Sabugosa  has 
devoted  a  large  volume  to  it,  which  contains  sketches  by 
Queen  Amelia1.  Byron  dismisses  it  in  one  single  line. 
Another  commentator  has  suggested  that  the  «yon- 
der»  fair  palace  might  also  mean  the  Palace  of  Mafra. 
This  cannot  be,  for  Mafra  is  described  further  on,  and 
the  building  there  was  always  known  as  the  Convent  of 
Mafra.  There  can  be  no  doubt,  that  the  «yonder  palace 
fair»  is  the  National  Palace  of  Cintra. 

III.  Vathekl  England's  wealthiest  son,  once  form  d 
thy  Paradise.  William  Beckford  the  author  of  Vathek 
is  one  of  those  Englishmen  whose  name  is  intimately 
connected  with  Cintra.  He  is  styled  by  Byron  «the 
wealthiest  son  of  England)),  for  he  inherited  when  only 
eleven  years  of  age  a  million  in  ready  money,  and  an 
income  of  a  hundred  thousand  pounds  a  year.     He  was 

1  Sabugosa  (Gonde  de):  O  Pago  de  Cintra.  Lisboa,  1903. 



no  doubt  the  wealthiest  English  commoner  of  his  day. 
He  paid  three  visits. to  Portugal:  the  firsl  in  1787  for 
eight  months;  the  second  in  1788  for  a  short  time;  and 
the  third  from  May  1794  to  the  commencement  of  1796, 
with  an  absence  of  a  few  months  in  Spain.  His  f  rathek, 
written  originally  in  French  and  published  at  Lausanne 
in  1787  has  always  been  considered  one  of  the  best 
stories  of  its  kind.  Lord  Byron,  in  a  foot-note  to  his 
Giaour  says:  «For  the  contents  of  some  of  (my)  notes, 
I  am  indebted  partly  to  D'Herbelot  and  partly  to  that 
most  Eastern,  and,  as  Mr.  Weber  justly  entitles  it, 
((sublime  tale»,  the  Caliph  Vathek.  I  do  not  know  from 
what  source  the  author  of  that  singular  volume  may 
have  drawn  his  materials,  some  of  the  incidents  are  to 
be  found  in  the  Bibliotheque  Orient  ale;  but  for  correct- 
ness of  costume,  beauty  of  description,  and  power  of 
imagination,  it  surpasses  all  European  imitations,  and 
bears  such  marks  of  originality,  that  those  who  have 
visited  the  East  will  find  some  difficulty  in  believing  it 
to  be  more  than  a  translation.  As  an  Eastern  tale, 
even  Rasselas  must  bow  before  it;  his  «Happv  Yallev» 
will  not  bear  a  comparison  with  the  «Hall  of  Ellis » . 
And  in  a  note  to  The  Siege  of  Corinth  Byron  again 
refers  to  Vathek,  as  a  work  which  «I  never  recur  t<>, 
or  read,  without  a  renewal  of  gratification)).  This  was 
the  opinion  of  Byron  as  regards  Vathek.  Beckford's 
opinion  of  Byron  was  that  he  «is  a  splendid  bouquet 
of  intellectual  voluptuousness  — a  genius —  a  great  ge- 
nius—  but  an  irregular  one,  his  poetic  flight  is  like  that 
of  a  fire-Hy,  alternate  flashes  of  light  and  dark"1.     In  a 

1  Melville  (Lewis):  The  Life  and  Letters  of  William  Beckford 
of  Fonthill.  London,  1910,  pg.  147. 


letter  to  Samuel  Rogers  (Venice,  March  3,  1818)  Byron 
expressed  a  wish  to  see  the  Tales  or  Episodes  in  manu- 
script written  by  Beckford  in  continuation  of  Vathek, 
and  also  their  author  in  case  he  went  to  England. 
The  manuscript  was  not  lent,  and  Beckford  signified 
that  he  did  not  wish  to  see  Byron.  It  may  be  men- 
tioned in  passing  that  these  Episodes  have  recently 
been  translated  into  English  by  Sir  Frank  T.  Maziols. 

The  best  editions  of  Vathek  in  French  are  by 
Mallerme,  and  in  English  by  Garnett1,  both  of  which 
contain  excellent  introductions.  Regarding  Portugal 
Beckford  wrote  his  admirable  Letters  or  Sketches, 
which  have  been  mentioned  before,  and  another  wrork 
on  Alcobaca  and  Batalha2.  Cintra  owes  some  of  its 
renown  among  Englishmen  to  Beckford,  who  styles  it 
the  «Garden  of  the  Hesperides»,  and  a  « Heaven  upon 
Earth ». 

The  «Paradise  of  Yathek»  known  as  the  Quinta  de 
Monserrate,  takes  its  name  from  a  chapel  built  there 
in  1540  and  dedicated  to  Our  Lady  of  Monserrate. 
The  property  in  which  the  chapel  stood  was  leased  to 
Gerard  Devisme,  a  wealthy  English  merchant  in  Lisbon, 
who  built  there  a  mansion  in  the  style  of  an  old  castle 
with  terraces  and  battlements,  a  fair  sketch  of  which 
may  be  seen  in  the  Archivo  Pittoresco- .    When  Devis- 

1  Vathek:  reimprime  sur  l'original  francais.  Avec  la  Preface 
de  Stephane  Mallerme,  Paris,  1893.  —  Ibid.  Edited  by  Dr.  R.  Garnett, 
London,  1893. 

2  Recollections  of  an  Excursion  to  Alcobaca  and  Batalha. 
London,  i835. 

3  Archivo  Pittoresco.  Lisboa,  1864,  vol.  vn.,  pg.  245. 


me  left  Lisbon,  he  let  his  house  to  William  Beckford 
who  resided  there  during  his  third  visit  and  gave  magni- 
ficent entertainments.  It  was  probably  during  his  stay 
there  that  he  wrote  his  Modern  Novel  Writing  or  Ele- 
gant Enthusiast,  and  Anemia:  a  Descriptive  and  Senti- 
mental Novel,  two  satirical  works  published  under  the 
pseudonyms  of  Lady  Harriet  Marlow  and  of  J.  S.  M. 
Jenks,  in  1796  and  1797,  respectively.  Reiving  no  doubt 
upon  Byron's  description,  several  writers  have  asserted 
that  Beckford  built  his  own  Paradise  at  Gintra.  This 
is  a  mistake. 

The  last  two  lines  commencing  with  «When  wanton 
Wealth»  stood  in  the  MS.  thus: 

[When  Wealth  and  Taste  their  worst  and  best  have  done, 
Meek  Peace  pollution's  lure  voluptuous  still  must  shun.] 


Here  didst  thou  dwell,  here  schemes  of  pleasure  plan. 
Beneath  von  mountain's  beauteous  brow; 
But  now,  as  if  a  thing  unblest  bv  Man, 
Thv  fairy  dwelling  is  as  lone  as  Thou1-! 
Here  giant  weeds  a  passage  scarce  allow 
To  Halls  deserted,  portals  gaping  wide; 
Fresh  lessons  to  the  thinking  bosom,  how 
Vain  are  the  pleasaunce;  on  earth  supplied; 
Swept  into  wrecks  anon  by  Time's  ungentle  tide! 

I.  But  now,  as  if  a  thing  unblest  by  Man,  thy  fair  y 
dwelling  is  as  lone  as  Thou.  In  the  MS.  the  fourth 
line  in  this  stanza  stood  as  follows: 

[But  now  thou  Beacon  unto  man,] 


And    there    was    another   stanza,    also   referring   to 
Beckford,  which  stood  thus: 

Unhappy  Drresl  En  an  evil  hour 
'Gainst  Nature's  voice  seduced  to  deed's  accurst! 
Once  Fortune's  minion  now  thou  feel'st  her  power, 
Wraths'  vial  on  thy  lofty  head  hath  hurst, 
In  Wit,  in  Genius,  as  in  Wealth  the  first, 
I  low  wondrous  bright  thou  blooming  morn  arose! 
But  thou  wert  smitten  with  th'  unhallowed  thirst 
Of  Crime  unnamed,  and  thy  sad  noon  must  close 
In  scorn  and  solitude  unsought  the  worst  of  woes  . 

This  stanza,  which  had  been  suppressed  at  the 
suggestion  of  Dallas,  was  published  in  1 83*3  among 
"Occasional  Pieces»  under  the  heading  of  To  Dives. 
A  Fragment.  Regarding  this  stanza,  Byron,  in  a  letter 
(September  26,  181 1)  to  Dallas,  says:  <J  should  be 
sorry  to  make  any  improper  allusion  (to  Beckford);  as 
I  only  wish  to  adduce  an  example  of  wasted  wealth 
and  the  reflexion  which  arose  in  surveying  the  most 
dismal  mansion  in  the  most  beautiful  spot  I  ever  beheld». 
It  is  a  pity  that  the  poet  was  not  as  careful  m  making 
improper  allusions  to  other  people.  The  « deeds  accurst» 
attributed  to  Beckford  had  no  foundation  whatsoever. 
Byron  compares  the  « fairy  dwelling))  of  Beckford  with 
his  subsequent  lonely  and  secluded  life  at  Fonthill 
Abbey.  In  1809  the  mansion  which  was  not  solid- 
Iv  constructed  had  fallen  into  ruins.  The  property 
was  later  on  bought  by  Sir  Francis  Cook,  who  built 
there  a  mansion  in  the  Moorish  stvle  and  laid  out  an 
excellent  park.  It  is  now  in  the  possession  of  his  son 
Sir  Frederick  Lucas  Cook,  the  second  Viscount  of 


After  leaving  Portugal  in  E796  Beckford  went  back 
to  England  and  built  his  great  Gothic  Abbey  at  Fonthill, 
and  later  on  his  Tower  on  the  top  of  the  Lansdowne 
Hill  at  Bath,  which  after  his  death  was  converted  into 
the  chapel  of  a  cemetery.  He  died  at  Bath  in  straitened 
circumstances  in  1844. 

St.  XXIII: — 1.  8,  «Pleasaunces».  Archaic \plaisance 
in  French. 


Behold  the  hall(A)  L  where  chiefs  were  late  convene.: ! 
Oh!  dome  displeasing  unto  British  eve! 
With  diadem  hight  Foolscap,  lo!  a  FiQnd, 
A  little  Fiend  that  scoffs  incessantly. 
There  sits  in  parchment  robe  arraved,  and  by 
His  side  is  hune  a  seal  and  sable  scroll, 
Where  blazoned  glare  names  known  to  chivalry11. 
And  sundry  signatures  adorn  the  roll, 
Whereat  the  Urchin  points  and  laughs  with  all  his  soul. 

(A.)  The  Convention1  of  Cintra2  was  signed  in  the 
palace  of  the  Marchese  Marialva.  —  B.  N. 

I.  Behold  the  hall.  The  «dome»  of  the  Marquis  of 
Marialva,  known  as  Quinta  de  Seteais,  or  the  Mansion 
of  Seven  echos,  is  situated  at  a  distance  of  nearly  one 
and  a  half  kilometres  from  the  National  Palace  of  Cintra. 
It  was  built  by  Guildermeester,  a  rich  Dutch  Consul', 
who  sold  it  to  the  fifth  Marquis  of  Marialva,  a  grand 
seigneur,  famous  for  his  great  magnificence  and  libera- 

1  Vid.  St.  XXV.,  N.  1. 

2  Vid.  St.  XXVI,  N.  1.  —  Byron  says  Marchese  Marialva;  in 
Portuguese  it  is  Marques  de  Marialva. 

52  childk  harold's  pilgrimage. 

litv.  It  consists  of  two  one-storeyed  wings,  joined  bv 
an  archway  which  contains  the  busts  of  John  VI.,  and 
Carlota  Joaquina.  Byron  believed  that  the  ((Convention 
of  Cintra»  was  signed  in  one  of  the  halls  of  this  build- 
ing.  It  will  be  seen  further  on  that  this  was  not  the 

II.   Where  blazoned  glare  names  known  to  chivalry. 

The  original  reading  of  this  and  the  next  two  lines 
was : 

[Where  blazoned  glare  a  name  spelt  Wellesley, 

And  sundry  signatures  adorn  the  roll, 

Whereat  the  Urchin  points  and  laughs  with  all  his  soul.] 

Then  came  the  following  four  stanzas,  nos.  XXV.  to 
XXVIII.,  which  were  suppressed  at  the  suggestion  of 

[in  golden  characters  right  well  desigh'd 
First  on  the  list  appeareth  one  «Junot», 
Then  certain  other  glorious  names  we  find^ 
(Which  rhyme  competleth  me  to  place  below) 
Dull  victors!  baffled  bv  a  vanquished  foe, 
Wheedled  bv  cunning  tongues  of  laurels  due, 
Stand  worthy  of  each  other,  —in  a  row  — 
Sirs  Arthur,  Harry,  and  the  diz/ard  Hew 
Dalrymple,  seely  wight,  sore  dupe  of  t'other  tew. 

Convention  is  the  dwarfy  demon  styled 

That  foil'd  the  knights  in  Marialva's  dome. 
Of  brains  (if  brains  they  had)  he  them  beguiled, 
And  turned  a  nation's  shallow  joy  to  gloom. 
For  well  1  wot  when  first  the  news  did  come 
That  Vimiera's  field  bv  Gaul  was  lost, 
For  paragraph  no  paper  had  room, 
Such  Paeans  teemed  for  our  triumphant  host. 
In  Courier,  Chronicle,  and  in  Morning  Post. 

notes  and  Comments.  53 

But  when  Convention  sent  his  handy  work. 
Pens,  tongue%  feet,  hands,  combined  in  wild  uproar, 
Mayor,  Alderman,  laid  down  th'  uplifted  fork: 
The  Bench  of  Bishops  half  forgot  to  snore 
Stern  Cobbet,  who  for  one  whole  week  forbore 
To  question  aught,  once  more  with  transport  leap't, 
And  bit  his  devilish  quill  agen,  and  swore 
With  foe  such  treaty  never  should  be  kept. 
Then  burst  the  blatant (aJ  beast,  and  roared  and  raged,  and  slept! 

Thus  unto  heaven  appealed  the  people;  heaven 
Which  loves  the  lieges  of  our  gracious  King, 
Decreed  that  ere  our  generals  were  forgiven, 
Inquiry  should  be'held  about  the  thing. 
But  merely  cloaked  the  babes  beneath  their  wing; 
And  as  thev  spaied  our  fo~s  so  spared  we  them, 
Where  was  the  pity  of  our  sires  for  Bvng(b) 
Yet  knaves,  nor  idiots  should  the  law  condemn. 
Then  triumph,  gallant,  knights!  and  bless  your  judges'  phlegm.] 

The  reason  given  by  Dallas  for  the  suppression  of 
these  stanzas  was  that  ((politically  speaking,  indeed,  in 
every  sense,  great  deeds  should  be  allowed  to  efface 
slight  errors))1.  The  names  known  to  chivalry  are 
those  of  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley,  Sir  Harry  Burrard,  and 
Sir  Hugh  Dalrymple. 

Ca)  [Blatant  beast — a  figure  for  the  mob,  I  think  first  used  by 
Smollett  in  his  Adventures  of  an  Atom.  Horace  has  the  «bellua 
multorum  capitums;  in  England,  fortunately  enough,  the  mobility 
have  not  even  one.  —  B.  N.]. 

(b)  [Bv  this  query  it  is  not  meant  that  our  foolish  generals 
should  have  been  shot,  but  that  Byng  might  have  been  spared, 
though  the  one  suffered,  and  the  others  escaped,  probably  for 
Gandide's  reason,  «pour  encourager  les  autres».  —  B.  N.J. 

'  Dallas  (R.  G):  Op.  cit.,  pg.  174. 

?4  CHiLDi-:  Harold's  pilgrimage. 


Convention  is  the  dwarfish  demon1  styled 
That  foiled  the  knights  in  Marialva's  dome: 
Of  brains  (if  brains  they  had)  he  them  beguiled, 
A  id  turn'd  a  nation's  shallow  joy  to  gloom. 
Here  Folly  dashed  to  earth  the  victor's  plume, 
And  Policy  regained  what  arms  had  lost: 
For  chiefs  like  oars  in  vain  may  laurels  bloom! 
Woe  to  the  conquering,  not  the  conquer'd  host, 
Since  baffled  Triumph  droops  on  Lusitania's  coast] 

I.  Convention  is  the  dwarfish  demon.  The  Conven- 
tion signed  on  August  3o,  1S0S,  after  the  battle  ofVi- 
meiro,  created  a  great  deal  of  discontent  both  in  England 
and  Portugal-  Bvron  devotes  to  it  three  stanzas.  In 
England  the  discontent  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
French  after  being  defeated  were  allowed  to  leave  the 
country  without  molestation.  In  Portugal  it  was  con- 
demncd  because  all  the  arrears  of  contributions  due 
to  Portuguese  subject  were  cancelled;  all  subjects  of 
France  and  those  Portuguese  who  had  sympathised 
with  them  were  to  be  protected;  and  all  Frenchmen 
were  to  be  allowed  to  remove  their  property  without 
molestation!  And  no  compensation  was  made,  absolu- 
tely \v>nit,  in  return  for  these  concessions.  Dalrymple 
had  siiined  the  document  without  consulting  the  Portu- 
guese  Junta.  He  had  accepted  responsibilities  which 
he  could  not  carry  out.  The  Junta  sent  a  strong  protest 
against  this  arrangement  to  the  English  Government. 
All  the  three  generals  connected  with  the  Convention, 
Dalrymple,  Hew,  and  Welleslej  had  to  submit  to  a 
court  of  inquiry  in  England.  All  were  acquitted,  but 
only  Wellesley  was  sent  back  in  iKoq,  and  the  others 


'  were  passed  over.  Those  interested  in  this  subject 
will  find  much  useful  information  in  the  work  of  Mr. 
Oman,  to  which  reference  has  been  made  before. 

The  French,  as  may  well  be  imagined,  were  elated 
with  their  diplomatic  success.  The  Duchess  of  Abran- 
tes,  wife  of  Junot,  for  instance,  says:  «The  beautiful 
verses  of  Lord  Byron  are  quite  sufficient  for  the  glory 
of  Junot,  when  the  original  of  this  Convention  will  not  be 
there  to  prove  it*1. 


And  ever  since  that  martial  Synod  met, 
Britannia  sickens,  Cintra,  at  thv  name1  ; 
And  folks  in  office  at  the  mention  fret, 
And  fain  would  blush,  if  blush  they  could,  for  shame. 
How  will  Posterity  the  deed  proclaim! 
Will  not  our  own  and  fellow-nations  sneer. 
To  view  these  champions  cheated  of  their  fame, 
B:  fo^s  in  fight  overthrown,  yet  victors  here, 
Where  Scorn  her  finger  points  through  many  a  coming  year? 

I.  Britannia  sickens,  Cintra!  at  thy  name.  Byron 
is  here  again  mistaken.  The  Convention  was  not  signed 
at  Cintra  but  at  Torres  Vedras,  and  ratified  at  Lisbon. 
Whv  it  was  styled  the  ((Convention  of  Cintra»  has  not 
vet  been  satisfactorily  explained.  It  was  probably  so 
termed  because  Dalrvmple,  after  having  signed  the 
Convention  at  Torres  Vedras  on  the  ist  September  1808, 
shifted  his  head-quarters  on  the  2nd  to  Cintra,  and  it  is 
from  Cintra  that  «his  dispatches  giving  an  account  of 

1  Abrantes   (Duchesse  de):  Memoircs,  10  vols.,  Paris,  s.  d., 
vol.  V  ,  pg.  467. 

56  childe  hakold's  pilgrimage 

his  recent  transactions!)  were  dated  and  sent1.  It  is 
curious  that  it  is  styled  the  a  Convention  of  Cintra»  by 
the  Hoard  of  Inquiry,  who  commenced  their  sittings  on 
November  14  and  submitted  their  Report  at  the  close 
of  December.  Anyhow,  Britannia  has  no  reason  to 
sicken  at  the  name  of  Cintra. 


So  deem'd  the  Childe,  as  o'er  the  mountains  he 
Did  take  his  way  in  solitary  guise: 
Sweet  was  the  scene,  yet  soon  he  thought  to  flee. 
More  restless  than  the  swallow  in  the  skies: 
Though  here  awhile  he  learned  to  moralize, 
For  Meditation  fix'd  at  times  on  him; 
And  conscious  Reason  whisper'd  to  despise 
His  early  youth  misspent  in  maddest  whim; 
But  as  he  gazed  on  truth1-,  his  aching  eves  t>rew  dim. 

I.  Ga\ed  on  truth.  In  his  Preface  to  Childe  Harold 
Byron  expressly  wished  that  Childe  Harold  should  not 
be  confounded  with  himself.  There  is  no  doubt  that 
Byron  now  and  then  <<gazed  on  truths,  and  wanted  to 
reform  himself.  Before  leaving  England  he  had  broken 
up  his  harems  and  reduced  his  food  to  very  simple  fare; 
when  at  Constantinople  he  had  made  another  serious 
attempt  to  change  his  life;  and  once  more  when  he  had 
gone  back  to  England.  But  it  was  of  no  use.  His 
passions  were  too  strong  for  him.  After  leaving  Eng- 
land for  good  he  led  a  life  of  great  dissipation. 

1  Dalrymple  (General  Sir  Hew):  Memoir  written  by.,.  Lon- 
don. 1  33o,  pg.  7 1 . 


On  reading  Childe  Harold  with  the  Poet's  notes 
one  would  imagine  that  Byron  was  in  danger  of  being 
assaulted  or  assassinated  everywhere  in  Lisbon,  even 
when  he  was  driving  in  a  carriage  with  a  friend;  and 
that  he  was  often  engaged  in  deep  and  serious  medita- 
tion. His  letter  to  Hodgson,  written  just  on  the  eve 
of  his  departure  from  Lisbon  — to  be  quoted  further 
on —  convevs  quite  a  different  idea:  there  he  says  he 
enjoved  his  visit  and  was  «very  happy».  Before  he 
became  a  celebritv  in  1812,  he  was  reckless  as  to  what 
he  did  or  said*,  his  whole  aim  was  to  shine,  to  make 
an  impression  upon  the  public.  Had  he  known  the 
great  aura  of  fame  that  was  awaiting  him,  he  would 
very  probablv  have  taken  more  care  with  some  portions 
of  his  Childe  Harold  and  with  some  of  his  letters. 
He  did  not  always  write  in  his  poems  what  he  wrote 
in  his  private  letters.  In  his  « Adieu  to  England" 
(st.  VI.),  for  instance,  he  makes  his  valet  Bob  disclaim 
timidity,  whereas  in  his  letters  he  says  the  valet  was  the 
reverse  of  valiant. 


To  horse!  to  horse1-!  he  quits,  for  ever  quits 
A  scene  of  peace,  though  soothing  to  his  soul: 
Again  he  rouses  from  his  moping  fits. 
But  seeks  not  now  the  harlot  and  the  bowl. 
Onward  he  flies,  nor  fixed  as  yet  the  goal 
Where  he  shall  rest  him  on  his  pilgrimage; 
And  o'er  him  manv  changing  scenes  must  roll, 
Ere  toil  his  thirst  for  travel  can  assuage, 
Or  he  shall  calm  his  breast,  or  learn  experience  sage. 

I.   To  horse!  to  horse!     Bvron  left  Lisbon  on  the  17th 
July,  and  rode  on  horseback  to  Badajoz  and  Seville  at 

58  Harold's  pilgrimage. 

the  rate  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  kilometres  |  70  miles) 
a  day.  He  commenced  his  journey  at  Aldea  Galega 
on  the  southern  side  Of  the  Tagus  and  followed  the 
road  to  Elvas.  There  is  no  doubt  he  enjoyed  his  ride 
great! v.  He  had  sent  his  heavy  baggage  and  two  of 
his  servants  by  sea  to  Gibraltar. 


Yet  Mafra (AJ  l  shall  one  moment  claim  delay. 
Where  dwelt  of  yore  the  Lusians1  luckless  queen11  ; 
And  Church  and  Court  did  mingle  their  array. 
And  Mass  and  revel  were  alternate  seen; 
Lordlings  and  freres111 — ill-sorted  fry,  I  ween! 
But  here  the  Babylonian  whore w*  had  built 
A  dome,  where  flaunts  she  in  such  glorious  sheen, 
That  men  forget  the  blood  which  she  hath  spilt, 
And  how  the  knee  to  Pomp  that  loves  to  garnish  guilt. 

A.)  The  extent  of  Mafra  is  prodigious*,  it  contains 
a  palace,  convent,  and  most  superb  church.  The  six 
organs  are  the  most  beautiful  I  ever  beheld,  in  point 
of  decoration:  we  did  not  hear  them,  but  were  told  that 
their  tones  were  correspondent  to  their  splendour,  Mafra 
is  termed  the  Kscurial  of  Portugal1.  — 13.  N. 

1.  Mafra.  The  monastery  of  Mafra  is  one  of  the 
most  important  public  monuments  of  Portugal,  and  is 
situated  at  a  distance  of  fifteen  kilometres  to  the  north- 
west of  Cintra.  It  owes  its  origin  to  a  vow  made  by 
John  V.  in  171  1  that  lie  would  build  a  friary  for  thirteen 
monks  if  he  should  be  blessed  with  a  successor  to  the 

1   Vid   Part  III .  6  vi.  for  further  remarks  by  Byron  on  Mafra. 


throne.  His  prayers  for  an  heir  being  granted  he  decid- 
ed to  improve  his  original  vow  by  building  a  monastery 
for  three  hundred  monks.  The  foundations  were  laid 
in  1717  and  the  enormous  pile  consisting  of  a  sumptuous 
church,  two  palatial  residences,  and  a  monastery  was 
completed  in  thirteen  years  at  a  cost  of  two  million 
pounds  sterling.  The  church  was  really  superb.  «Its 
first  coup-d'eeih),  says  Beckford,  «is  very  imposing. 
The  high  altar,  adorned  with  two  majestic  columns  of 
reddish  variegated  marble,  each,  a  single  block,  above 
thirty  feet  in  height,  immediately  fixes  the  eye.  Trevi- 
siani  has  painted  the  altar-piece  in  a  masterly  manner^. 
The  collateral  chapels,  each  enriched  with  highly  finish- 
ed bassi-relievi  and  stately  portals  of  black  and  yellow 
marble,  richly  veined,  and  so  highly  polished  as  to 
reflect  objects  like  a  mirror.  Never  did  I  behold  such 
marble  as  gleamed  above,  below,  and  around  us.  The 
pavement,  the  vaulted  ceilings,  the  dome,  and  even  the 
topmost  lantern,  is  encrusted  with  the  same  costly  and 
durable  materials.  Roses  of  white  marble  and  wreaths 
of  palm-branches,  most  exquisitely  sculptured,  enrich 
every  part  of  the  edifice.  I  never  saw  Corinthian  ca- 
pitals better  modeled,  or  executed  with  more  precision 
and  sharpness,  than  those  of  the  columns  that  support 
the  nave1. 

II.    JJliere  dwelt  of  yore  the  Lusians  luckless  queen. 
In  the  MS.  this  line  stood  as  follows: 

[Where  dwelt  of  yore  the  Lusian's  crazy  queen.] 

1  Italy,  with  Sketches  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  Op.  cit.,  vol.  11.. 
pg.  1 3 1 .  Good  illustrations  of  the  Monastery  of  Mafra  may  be  seen 
in  A  Arte  e  a  Nature^a  em  Portugal.  Oporto,  ioo^,  vol.  vi. 

Co  chiide  harold's  pilgrimage. 

And  there  was  the  following  Note: 

[Her  luckless  Majesty  went  subsequently  mad:  and  Dr.  Willis, 
who  so  dexterously  cudgelled  kingly  pericraniums,  could  make 
nothing  of  hers 

The  Lusian's  luckless  Queen.  Maria  I.,  was  born 
in  Lisbon  in  1734  and  died  at  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  18 16. 
She  married  her  uncle  Don  Pedro,  and  succeeded 
to  the  throne  on  the  death  of  her  father  King  Joseph 
in  1777.  From  the  very  commencement  of  her  reign 
she  suffered  from  great  scruples  of  conscience  due  to 
several  measures  taken  by  her  father  and  by  his  great 
minister  the  Marquis  of  Pombal.  She  was  also  greatly 
affected  by  all  the  events  connected  with  the  French 
Revolution,  and  with  the  misfortunes  of  Louis  XVI.  and 
his  family.  All  this,  combined  with  fresh  scruples  of 
conscience,  inspired  by  the  excessively  illiberal  views 
of  her  new  confessor,  D.  Jose  Maria  de  Mello,  brought 
on  melancholic  derangement  of  her  mind  in  January 
1792.  She  was  placed  under  the  treatment  of  the  emi- 
nent English  specialist  Dr.  Willis,  from  March  i5  to 
the  commencement  of  August,  and  was  declared  to  be 
incurable1.  Byron's  «kingly  pericraniums »  is  an  allu- 
sio  to  George  III.  of  England,  who  had  been  treated 
successfully  by  Willis  during  his  first  attack  of  mental 
trouble  in  1788. 

When  all  hope  of  Dona  Maria's  recovery  had  to  be 
given  up,  her  son  Don  Joao  assumed  the  Regency  in 
1799.  On  the  invasion  of  Portugal  by  Junot,  she  was 
taken  to   Brazil.      During  her  reign  were  established, 

1  Dr.    Francis  Willis    was    given    an    initial    honorarium    of 
£  10,000  and  £  1,000  per  month,  with  all  his  other  expenses  paid. 


the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  the  National  Li- 
brary. Beckford,  in  his  letters,  has  left  a  very  interest- 
ing description  of  Dona  Maria's  court  in  1787. 

III.  Mass  and  revel.  .  .  lordlings  and  freres.  This 
is  probably  an  allusion  to  John  V.  the  founder  of  the 
Monastery  of  Mafra,  and  to  his  court.  Freres,  in  French 
means  monks;  in  Portuguese  they  are  known  as  «frades» 
and  the  nuns  as  «freiras».  JohnV.  was  nicknamed  «Rei 
freiratico»  or  the  King  given  to  the  love  of  nuns.  Se- 
veral writers  have  described  his  revels  at  the  Convent 
of  Odivelas,  where  he  had  built  a  special  house  for  his 
own  use.  He  was  a  king  who  combined  great  piety 
with  great  gallantry. 

IV.  Babylonian  whore. . .  and  the  blood  she  hath 
spilt.  Luther  was  the  first  to  identify  the  Catholic 
Church  with  the  «Babvlonian  "whore»  of  the  Apoca- 
lypse, and  the  Catholics  were  not  slow  in  identifying 
Luther  with  the  « Beast »,  also  of  the  Apocalvpse.  For- 
tunately such  terms  of  reproach  and  intolerance  have 
died  out,  at  least  among  the  cultured  classes,  during 
the  last  fifty  years.  «The  blood  she  hath  spilt»  is  an 
allusion  to  the  abuses  of  the  well-known  Inquisition, 
abuses  for  which  not  only  the  ecclesiastical  but  also  the 
secular  authorities  were  responsible.  Byron  would 
been  more  accurate  if  he  had  said  «the  blood  she  had 
helped  to  spill ». 

Later  on,  Lord  Byron  did  not  think  so  very  badly 
of  the  Catholic  Church.  In  a  letter  to  R.  B.  Hoppner 
(April  3,  1 82 1),  regarding  the  education  of  his  natural 
daughter  Allegra,  he  says:  «It  is  my  wish  that  she 
should  be  a  Roman  Catholic,  which  I  look  upon  as  the 


best  religion,  as  it  is  assuredly  the  oldest  of  the  various 
branches  of  Christianity ».  Again  in  a  letter  to  Moore 
.March  8,  1822  he  remarks:  «As  I  said  before  I  am 
really  a  great  admirer  of  tangible  religion;  and  am 
breeding  one  of  my  daughters  as  a  Catholic  that  she 
may  have  her  hands  full.  It  is  by  far  the  most  elegant 
worship,  hardly  excepting  the  Greek  mythology*.  And 
when  at  Pisa  he  is  reported  to  have  said  «I  have  regretted 
not  being  born  a  Catholic,  for  to  my  mind  the  doc- 
trine of  Purgatory  is  consoling))1.  It  may  be  mentioned 
that  the  poet  was  born  and  brought  up  a  Calvinist,  but 
in  his  later  years  he  became  a  sceptic  or  agnostic,  and, 
like  all  sincere  agnostics,  he  wished  sometimes  to  be 
convinced  of  the  truth  of  any  form  of  Christianity,  or 
of  any  religion.  He  remarked  a  short  time  before  his 
death  that  were  he  to  become  a  Christian  he  would  not 
be  a  lukewarm  one. 


O'er  vales  that  teem  with  fruits,  romantic  hills, 
(Oh  that  such  hills  upheld  a  free  born  race!) 
Whereon  to  gaze  the  eve  with  joyaunce  fills, 
Childe  Harold  wends  through  many  a  pleasant  place. 
Though  sluggards  deem  it  but  a  foolish  chase, 
And  marvel  men  should  quit  their  easy  chair. 
The  toilsome  way,  and  long,  long  league  to  trace, 
Oh!  there  is  sweetness  in  the  mountain  air1. 
And  Life,  that  bloated  Ease  can  never  hope  to  share. 

I.   Oh!  there  is  sweetness  in  the  mountain  air.    In  the 

highlands  of  the  Alemtejo  there  is  real  «sweetness»  in 

1  Vid.  Lord  Byron,  juge  par  les  iemoins  de  sa  vie.  Op.  cit.} 
vol.  I.,  pg.  209. 


the  air,  due  to  the  Gum  Cistus  (Cist us  ladam 'ferns),  a 
beautiful  shrub,  with  large  white  flowers  with  a  purple 
spot  in  the  centre;  its  buds  and  leaves  are  covered  with 
a  sweet  smelling  gum,  which  emits  in  summer  parti- 
cularly in  the  evenings,  a  very  pleasant  fragrance. 
Bvron  refers,  therefore,  to  real  sweetness.  He  enjoyed 
his  ride  to  the  frontier.  In  his  younger  days,  when  he 
was  residing  at  Aberdeen,  he  was  accustomed  to  rove 
in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland. 


More  bleak  to  view  the  hills  at  length  recede, 
And.  less  luxuriant,  smoother  vales  extend; 
Immense  horizon-bounded  plains  succeed1-! 
Far  as  the  eve  discerns,  withouten  end, 
Spain's  realms  appear,  whereon  her  shepherds  tend 
Flocks,  whose  rich  fleece  right  well  the  trader  knows  — 
Now  must  the  Pastor's  arms  his  lambs  defend: 
For  Spain  is  compass'd  by  unyielding  foes, 
And  all  must  shield  their  all,  or  share  Subjection's  woes. 

I.  Immense  hori\on-bounded  plains  succeed.     In  a 

few  lines  in  this  and  the  last  stanza  Lord  Byron  gives 
an  excellent  description  of  the  route  which  he  traversed 
in  the  Province  of  Alemtejo.  The  country  consists  first 
of  valleys  and  hills,  but  in  approaching  Spain  the  hills 
disappear,  and  there  are  immense  plains.  In  summer, 
as  the  influence  of  the  sea  diminishes,  the  vegetation 
becomes  less  and  less  luxuriant,  and  the  eastern  portion 
of  the  province  looks  arid  and  barren.  As  in  the  case 
of  Lisbon  and  Cintra  the  description  of  the  country 
given  by  Bvron  is  remarkably  accurate,  and  clothed  in 
beautiful  language. 

64  childk  harold's  pilgrimage. 


Where  Lusitania  and  her  Sister  meet, 
Deem  ye  what  bounds  the  rival  realms1-  divide? 
Or  ere  the  jealous  Queens  of  Nations11-  greet, 
Doth  Tayo  interpose  his  mighty  tide! 
Or  dark  Sierras  rise  in  craggy  pride? 
Or  fence  of  art,  like  China's  vasty  "wall?  — 
Ne  barrier  wall,  ne  river  deep  and  wide111-, 
Ne  horrid  cra^s,  nor  mountains  dark  and  tall, 
Rise  like  the  rocks  that  part  Hispania's  land  from  Gaul 

I.  Rival  realms.  Byron  speaks  of  « rival  realms » 
and  «rival  kingdoms ».  There  has  always  existed  a 
rivalry  between  Portugal  and  Spain.  One,  small  and 
weak,  always  trying  to  uphold  its  independence;  the 
other,  large  and  powerful,  always  thinking  of  absorbing 
the  small.     There  is  no  love  lost  between  the  two. 

II.  The  jealous  Queens  of  Nations.  This  is  the  only 
expression  throughout  the  whole  poem  which  indicates 
that  the  Portuguese  were  ever  great.  But  from  the 
context  it  is  quite  clear  that  it  was  not  meant  to  be  a 
compliment  to  them.  It  is  only  when  he  speaks  of 
Spain  that  he  refers,  in  a  moment  of  forge tf illness,  to  the 
fact  that  Portugal  was  one  of  the  « Queens  of  Nations)). 

III.  Or  fence  of  art,  like  China's  wall?  —  Ne  barrier 
wall,  ne  river  deep  and  nude.  In  the  MS.  the  sixth  line 
of  this  stanza  ran  thus : 

[Or  arts  vain  fence,  like  China's  vasty  wall?] 

This  is  a  striking  instance  of  how  Byron's  imagina- 
tion misled  him;  how  he  jumped  to  generalizations  from 


the  slightest  foundation.  He  entered  Spain  by  the  road 
from  Elvas  to  Badajoz;  he  crossed  the  small  brook 
Caio  which  can  be  forded  easily  in  summer,  and  from 
this  simple  fact  he  drew  the  conclusion  that  the  whole 
frontier  between  Portugal  and  Spain  was  of  the  same 
nature.  He  never  imagined  that  the  access  to  Portugal 
from  Spain  was  as  difficult  as  the  access  to  Spain  from 
France.  There  are  only  two  courses  open  to  an  invader 
of  Portugal  bv  land:  the  first  through  Almeida,  and  the 
other  through  Elvas.  Almost  always  the  first  has  been 
preferred,  as  it  does  not  present  such  a  barrier  as  the 
Tagus.  All  the  remaining  portions  of  the  frontier  are 
bounded  bv  large  mountains,  deep  valleys  or  wide 

St.  XXXII:  —  1.  4,  Tayo.  Tagus,  Tajo  in  Spanish. 
andTejo  in  Portuguese.; — 1.  5,  Sierra.  Mountain,  serra 
in  Portuguese. 


But  these  between  a  silver  streamlet  glides. 
And  scarce  a  name  distineuisheth  the  brook. 
Though  rival  kingdoms  press  its  verdant  sides. 
Here  leans  the  idle  shepherd  on  his  crook. 
And  vacant  on  the  rippling  waves  doth  look. 
That  peaceful  still  'tvvixt  bitterest  foemen  flow: 
For  proud  each  peasant  as  the  noblest  duke: 
Well  doth  the  Spanish  hind  the  difference  know 
'Twixt  him  and  Lusian  slave,  the  lowest  of  the  low. iA  ' ' 

(A.)  As  I  found  the  Portuguese,  so  I  have  charac- 
terised them.  That  they  are  since  improved,  at  least  in 
courage,  is  evident.  The  late  exploits  of  Lord  Welling- 
ton have  effaced  the  follies  of  Gintra.      He  has  indeed 

66  childe  Harold's  pilgrimage. 

done  wonders;  he  has  perhaps  changed  the  character 
of  a  nation,  reconciled  rival  superstitions,  and  baffled  an 
enemy  who  never  retreated  before  his  predecessors. — 
2nd  edition  18124—  B.  N. 

I.   The  Spanish  hind. . .  and  Lnsian  slave,  the  lowest 

of  the  low.  This  is  one  of  the  serious  accusations 
against  the  Portuguese;  it  is  the  great  poet's  parting 
oresent  to  his. beloved  Allies.  Once  more,  and  for  the 
last  time,  he  made  a  great  mistake. 

Before  proceeding  further  it  may  be  pointed  out 
that  in  those  days  the  character  of  the  Portuguese  nation 
could  not  be  judged  bv  the  inhabitants  of  Lisbon.  Link, 
the  famous  botanist,  who  had  come  to  Portugal  in  the 
company  of  Count  Hoffmansegg  in  1798,  and  had  resided 
nearly  one  whole  year  in  the  country  and  mixed  inti- 
mately with  the  people,  says:  «I  read  all  the  accounts 
I  could  procure  of  travels  in  Portugal,  and  found  no 
one  had  seen  so  much  of  the  country  as  ourselves. 
I  also  perceived  that  most  of  the  authors  of  those  works 
were  grossly  ignorant  of  the  language,  and  gave  many 
false  accounts,  or  such  as  were  only  applicable  to  the 
inhabitants  of  the  metropolis,  but  which  were  erroneous- 
ly intended  to  the  whole  kingdoms.  And,  further  on, 
he  adds:  «the  politeness,  and  the  easy,  gay,  and  friendly 
manner   of  the   common   people   prejudice   a   foreigner 

1  It  suited  Lord  Byron  in  1812  to  say  that  Lord  Wellington 
had  worked  wonders,  but  he  vyas  not  backward  in  reviling  him 
in  his  Waltji  published  anonymously  in  i^i3.  He  was  never  con- 
sistant  in  his  views,  and  was  given  to  recant  his  opinions  very 


more  in  favour  of  the  Portuguese  than  of  the  Spaniards » l. 
And  Southey,  having  in  mind,  no  doubt,  what  Byron 
had  said  of  the  Portuguese,  writes :  c Travellers,  form- 
ing their  hasty  estimate  from  the  inhabitants  of  sea-ports 
and  great  cities  have  too  generally  agreed  in  reviling  the 
Portuguese  and  Spaniards;  but  if  they  whose  acquaint- 
ance with  these  nations  was  merely  superficial  have 
been  disposed  to  depreciate  and  despise  them,  others 
who  dwelt  among  them  always  became  attached  to  the 
people,  and  bore  honourable  and  willing  testimony  to 
the  virtues  of  the  national  character)).  And,  in  another 
place,  he  remarks:  «The  Portuguese  were  as  proud  a 
people  as  the  Spaniards,  and  had  in  their  history  as 
much  cause  for  pride,  but  they  were  not  so  impractic- 
able))2. Byron,  who  had  resided  in  Lisbon  only  ten 
days,  and  did  not  know  the  language  sufficiently  well 
to  obtain  any  information  at  first  hand,  committed  exact- 
ly the  mistakes  pointed  out  by  Link  and  Southey.  He 
judged  the  spirit  of  the  Portuguese  people  in  the  same 
wav  that  he  had  judged  the  nature  of  the  Portuguese 
frontier.  There  is  no  great  difference  between  the 
Portuguese  and  the  Spaniards:  they  share  the  same 
virtues  and  the  same  defects,  as  may  be  seen  in  their 
respective  literatures. 

The  real  character  of  the  Portuguese  has  almost 
always  shown  itself  more  in  the  country  than  in  the 
metropolis.     In  1808  the  principal  juntas  were  in  the 

1  Link  (Henry  Frederick) :  Travels  in  Portugal  and  through 
France  and  Spain.  Translated  from  the  German  by  John  Hinckley, 
London,  1801,  pp.  v  and  i3o. 

2  Southey  (R.):  History  of  the  Peninsular  War.  Op.  cit., 
vol.  1.,  Part  1.,  p^.  14;  and  Vol.  11.,  Part  11.,  pg.  585. 


provinces;  in  1820  the  centre  of  the  revolutionary  move- 
ment was  at  Oporto;  in  184S  the  Maria  da  Fonte 
insurrection  had  its  origin  in  Minho;  and  even  the  Re- 
publican revolution  first  broke  out  at  Oporto  in  1891. 
Byron  and  other  travellers  of  his  day  made  just  the 
same  mistake  as  regards  the  Portuguese,  that  many 
English  and  American  writers  made  with  regard  to  the 
French  before  the  present  Great  War. 

In  Byron's  opinion  the  Portuguese  were  « slaves,  the 
lowest  of  the  low»,  compared  with  the  ((Spanish  hind, 
proud  as  the  noblest  duke».  And  he  supports  his 
opinion  bv  saving,  «as  I  found  the  Portuguese  so  I 
have  characterised  them».  It  is  enough  to  quote  here 
what  Wellington  thought  on  the  subject  eleven  months 
before  Byron's  visit.  In  his  report  to  Sir  Harry 
Burrard,  dated  8th  August,  1808,  he  says:  «In  respect 
to  Portugal,  the  whole  kingdom  with  the  exception  of 
the  neighbourhood  of  Lisbon  is  in  a  state  of  insurrection 
against  the  French;  their  means  of  resistance  are,  how- 
ever, less  powerful  than  those  of  the  Spaniards.  Their 
troops  have  been"  completely  dispersed,  their  officers 
had  gone  off  to  the  Brazils  and  their  arsenals  pillaged, 
or  in  the  power  of  the  enemy.  Their  revolt,  under  the 
circumstances  in  which  it  has  taken  place,  is  still  more 
extraordinary  than  that  of  the  Spanish  nation  l.  In  his 
dispatch  to  Lord  Castlereagh  (5th  September,  1808)  he 
remarks:  «No  Officer  could  calculate  a  great  operation 
upon  such  a  bodv  of  Spanish  peasants».  And,  in  a 
memorandum  forwarded  to  Lord  Liverpool  (19th  No- 
vember, 1908),  he  observes:  « Where  the  Spanish  fail 

1  The  italics  are  mine. 


is  in  the  lower  ranks  of  their  officers  and  in  their 

Carried  away  by  his  rancour,  Lord  Byron  simply 
ignored  plain  and  unmistakable  facts.  In  July  1809, 
when  he  came  to  Lisbon,  Portugal  was  one  of  the 
corners  of  Europe  quite  free  from  the  Napoleonic  yoke, 
whereas  the  greater  portion  of  Spain  was  under  his 
heel,  and  what  is  of  more  importance,  there  were 
actually  Portuguese  troops  in  Spain  helping  the  Spa- 
niards against  the  common  enemy !  In  1812,  when  he 
published  his  Childe  Harold,  it  was  exactly  the  same 
thing.  Portugal  was  quite  free  from  the  enemy,  and  the 
Portuguese  soldiers  were  also  helping  the  Spaniards! 

The  conduct  of  the  Portuguese  troops  during  the 
Peninsular  War  has  receiyed  such  universal  commend- 
ation both  from  friends  and  foes  that  it  is  not  necessary 
to  make  any  reference  to  it  here.  But  the  conduct  of 
the  ciyil  population  was  still  more  admirable.  Men 
and  women,  young  and  old,  sacrificed  themselves  and 
their  children  to  save  their  country  from  the  enemy. 
In  order  to  starye  Massena's  army  they  quitted  in  a 
body  seyeral  kilometres  on  both  sides  of  the  route  taken 
by  the  enemy  in  the  Proyinces  of  Beira  and  Estrema- 
dura,  burnt  all  their  proyisions,  and  converted  the 
country  into  a  desert.  It  is  enough  to  say  that  due  to 
this  fact  there  were  in  the  diocese  of  Coimbra  alone 
«more  than  2.960  murders,  20  villages  were  burnt  down, 
and  144  isolated  houses  were  set  on  fire»  by  the  French 
soldiers  from  September  1810  to  March  181 1  l.     Mas- 

1  Breve  memoria  dos  estragos  causados  no  bispado  de  Coim- 
bra pelo  exercito  frances  comandado pelo  general  Massena.  Lisbon. 
1812,  pg.  i5. 


sena  was  compelled  to  retire  from  the  dead  wall  of 
Torres  Vedras  more  from  the  pangs  of  hunger  than 
from  military  defeat. 

Marquis Wellesley,  the  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign 
Affairs,  stated  in  the  House  of  Lords  on  9th  April,  18 1 1, 
«ho\v  the  example  of  Portugal  might  prove  as  beneficial 
to  other  nations  of  Europe  as  they  had  hitherto  been 
for  her  own  defence*.  Even  hostile  members  of  Par- 
liament, like  General  Ferguson,  and  all  public  writers 
were  compelled  to  praise  their  heroism.  And  still 
these  verv  people  were  described  bv  Byron  as  «slaves, 
the  lowest  of  the  low»,  in  March,  181 2! 

When  Lord  Byron  found  that  he  had  offended  his 
own  countrymen  bv  the  way  he  had  described  the 
character  of  the  Portuguese,  he  made  a  Note  to  the 
second  edition  of  his  Childe  Harold,  a  note  which 
clearly  shows  that  his  rancour  against  them  had  not 
yet  subsided. 

I  will  conclude  this  Part  with  a  few  brief  and 
general    remarks.     Bvron    devotes,    roughly   speaking, 

1  stanza  to  his  sea  voyage,  3  to  Lisbon,  9  to  Cintra, 

2  to  general  meditation,  1  to  Mafra,  and  4  to  his  travels 
from  Lisbon  to  the  Spanish  frontier. 

Considered  purely  from  the  literary  point  of  view 
the  Pilgrimage  to  Portugal  is  one  of  the  best  things 
in  the  two  Cantos.  With  the  exception  of  a  line  or 
two  the  rest  are  very  limpid.  The  descriptions  of  the 
outer  world,  especially  of  Cintra  and  of  the  Tagus,  are 
really  wonderful,  both  in  the  brilliancy  of  the  imagery 
and  the  corresponding  wealth  of  diction.  But  considered 
from  the  historical  point  of  view,  and  from  the  allusions 
to  or  descriptions  of  public  monuments,  they  are  faulty 


and  incomplete  to  a  degree.  He  devotes  only  three 
stanzas  to  Lisbon  and  nine  to  Cintra.  In  the  description 
of  Lisbon  there  is  not  a  single  word  regarding  the 
Castle  of  St.  George  or  the  Monastery  of  Belem.  At 
Cintra  it  is  almost  the  same  thing:  not  one  word  with 
reference  to  its  Castle.  And,  as  regards  Portugal  as 
a  whole,  not  one  single  allusion  to  its  past  glories,  to 
its  past  heroism;  none  to  the  Campo  de  Ourique 
or  to  Aljubarrota;  none  to  Nuno  Alvares,  to  Gama, 
to  Albuquerque  or  to  Camoens;  and  none  to  its  women. 
He  condemns  the  whole  nation  and  does  not  endow  it 
with  one  single  redeeming  feature.  It  is  true,  he  is  a 
poet  and  not  a  historian.  All  the  same  the  contrasts 
in  all  these  respects  are  most  striking  the  moment 
he  enters  Spain.  There  he  sees  at  once  «Legions 
throng  of  Moor  and  Knight »,  «The  standard  of  Pela- 
gio»,  «Chivalry,  your  ancient  goddess »,  «Dark  gleaming 
daughters  formed  for  all  the  bewitching  arts  of  love», 
etc.,  etc. 

If  all  the  ideas  of  Lord  Byron,  both  published  and 
unpublished,  regarding  the  character  of  the  Portuguese, 
be  examined;  if  thev  be  separated  from  those  which 
refer  to  the  physical  features  of  the  country,  it  is  quite 
evident  that  his  passionate  animosity  against  the  Portu- 
guese was  due  more  to  personal  resentment  than  to 
mere  political  bias.  He  treats  them  in  the  same  way 
that  he  had  treated  his  own  countrymen  in  his  English 
Bards  and  Scotch  Reviewers.  He  had  received  a  rebuke 
from  one  Scotch  reviewer,  and  he  fell  foul  of  all  the 
Scotch  reviewers  and  almost  all  the  famous  men  of  his 
day,  men  who  had  never  raised  even  their  little  finger 
against  him.  In  Lisbon  he  has  to  submit  to  an  un- 
pleasant  experience    at  the  hands  of  one  Portuguese 


/  - 

husband,  and  he  falls  foul  of  the  whole  Portuguese 
nation.  He  reviles  them  as  brutes,  wretches,  paltry 
slaves,  born  as  slaves,  dirty,  filthy,  the  lowest  of  the 
low,  ignorant  and  proud,  prone  to  loathe  and  lick, 
cowards,  the  most  contemptible  cowards,  and  assassins! 
He  could  not  have  treated  worse  even  his  personal 
enemies.  He  showers  upon  the  whole  nation  all  the 
choice  epithets  he  had  uppermost  in  his  mind  against 
one  of  them!  It  was  his  way  then:  he  could  not  help  it. 
He  only  learnt  some  self-restraint  after  he  became  a 

But,  as  from  evil  sometimes  springs  good,  who 
knows  whether  Lord  Byron's  Childe  Harold  in  Portugal 
was  not  a  blessing  in  disguise?  Who  can  sav  whether 
he  did  not  contribute  —  quite  unconsciously  of  course  — 
his  own  share  to  the  Revolution  of  1820,  a  revolution 
which  led,  only  ten  years  after  his  death,  to  the  over- 
throwT  of  absolutism;  to  the  bestowal  of  equal  political 
rights  not  only  on  all  the  inhabitants  of  Portugal  but 
also  on  all  the  Colonials;  to  greater  religious  toleration 
and  freedom  of  speech;  and,  by  the  suppression  of 
religious  orders  and  modification  of  the  law  of  morga- 
dos  (entail),  to  render  the  distribution  of  landed  pro- 
perty more  just  and  equitable. 

The  Portuguese,  like  all  other  nations,  have  their 
faults,  but  the  lack  of  love  of  libertv  is  certainly  not 
one  of  them.  At  present  a  Protestant  or  a  Jew,  a 
Hindoo  or  a  Mohammedan,  has  just  the  same  privileges, 
religious  and  political,  as  a  Catholic  or  a  freethinker. 
If  the  Portuguese  have  one  fault  greater  than  another 
it  is  their  ideal  of  liberty,  liberty  not  onlv  for  themselves 
but  liberty  for  all.  It  is  an  ideal  which  does  not,  how- 
ever, always  produce  favourable  results  in  practice 


After  the  Peninsular  War,  during  the  greater  part 
of  the  last  century,  there  were,  among  the  British 
writers,  two  currents  of  opinion  regarding  the  Portu- 
guese: one  had  its  origin  in  the  views  of  their  greatest 
military  genius,  and  the  other  in  those  of  one  of  their 
most  brilliant  poets.  One  considered  them  gallant. 
brave,  and  patriotic:  the  other  described  them  as  slaves, 
cowards,  and  assassins.  One  judged  them  from  actual 
personal  experience:  the  other  from  poetical  fancy  and 
personal  resentment.  Unfortunately  there  have  been 
writers  who  have  preferred  the  opinion  of  the  poet  to 
that  of  the  soldier.  Chacun  a  son  gout. 






This  votive  pledge  of  fond  esteem. 
Perhaps,  dear  girl!  for  me  thou'ill  prize. 

It  sings  of  love  enchanting  dream, 
A  theme  we  never  can  despise. 

Who  blames  it  but  the  envious  fool, 

The  old  and  disappointed  maid, 
Or  pupil  of  the  prudish  school, 

In  single  sorrow  doomed  to  fade? 

Then  read,  dear  girl!  with  feeling  read. 
For  thou  wilt  be  ne'er  one  of  those; 

To  thee  in  vain  I  shall  not  plead. 
In  pity  for  the  poet's  woes. 

He  was  in  sooth  a  genuine  bard; 

His  was  no  faint  fictitious  flame; 
Like  his,  may  love  be  thy  reward. 

But  not  thy  hapless  fate  the  same11 . 

(From  Hours  of  Idleness,  18 

I.   The  Poems  of  Camoens  referred  to  by  Byron 
were    translations    into    English   of  sonnets,   canzons, 

76  Byron's  other  writings. 

madrigals,  etc.,  by  Lord  Strangford1.  This  work,  the 
earliest  of  its  kind,  attracted  a  good  deal  of  attention; 
it  passed  through  six  editions,  and  was  translated  into 
French  by  J.  B.  Barrere.  The  author  (  b.  1780-d.  [855), 
an  Irishman,  was  at  first  Secretary  to  the  British  Le- 
gation in  Portugal,  and  afterwards  British  Minister 
Plenipotentiary  attached  to  the  Portuguese  Court  at 
Rio  de  Janeiro.  In  1807  Byron  considered  the  poems 
worthy  of  being  presented  to  a  lady  —it  is  not  known 
who  this  lady  was —  but  this  is  what  he  thinks  of  the 
translation  and  the  translator  two  years  afterwards  in 
his  English  Bards  and  Scotch  Reviewers: 


«For  thee,  translator  of  the  tinsel  song. 
To  whom  such  glittering  ornaments  belong, 
Hibernian  Strangford!  with  thine  eyes  of  blue(a) 
And  boasted  locks  of  red  and  auburn  hue. 

1  Camoens  (Luis):  Poems  from  the  Portuguese  of...  Trans- 
lated by  Lord  Viscount  Strangford.  London,  iSo3. 

<:|)  The  reader,  who  may  wish  for  an  explanation  of  this,  may 
refer  to  Strangford's  Camoens,  pg.  127,  note  to  pg.  56;  or  to  the  last 
page  of  the  Edinburgh  Review  on  Strangford's  Camoens.  —  B.  N. 
The  note  referred  to  by  Bvron  is  on  the  canzonet: 

Nao  sei  quern  assella 
Vossa  fermesura,  etc. 

Thou  hast  an  eye  of  tender  blue,  etc., 
and  runs  thus:  «Locks  of  auburn  and  eyes  of  blue  have  ever  been 
dear  to  the  sons  of  song». 

The  Edinburgh  Review,  which  was  not  favourably  disposed 
towards  the  author,  remarked  sarcastically  that  «the  author  was 
welcome  to  his  young  freshness,  amorous  disposition,  or  anv  other 
of  those  advantages  which  the  noble  writer  possesses  or  thinks  he 
has  the  prospects  of  possessing  over  the  rest  of  the  world»  (vol.  vi. 
Pg   -so). 


Whose  plaintive  strain  each  love-sick  miss  admires. 
And  o'er  harmonious  fustian  half  expires, 

Learn,  if  thou  canst,  to  yield  thine  author's  sense. 
Nor  vend  thy  sonnets  on  a  false  pretence. 
Think/st  thou  to  gain  thy  verse  a  higher  place. 
By  dressing  Camoens  in  a  suit  of  lace?" 
Mend,  Strangford!  mend  thv  morals  and  thv  taste; 
Be  warm  but  pure,  be  amorous,  but  be  chaste: 
Cease  to  deceive;  thv  pilfer'd  harp  restore. 
Nor  teach  the  Lusian  bard  to  copy  Moore*. 

And  further  on  he-adds: 

Let  Strangford  steal  of  Moor 

And  swear  that  Camoens  sang  such  notes  of  yore. 

Since  i8o3  there  have  been  other  translations  into 
English,  partial  or  more  or  less  complete,  of  the  lyrics 
of  Camoens  by  Mrs.  Hemans  (1818),  Adamson  (1820 1, 
Bowles  (1839),  Burton  (1880),  Aubertin  (1881),  and 
Aubrey  Bell  (191 3). 

The  Revd.  W.  L.  Bowles  also  comes  in  for  his 
share  of  satire  in  the  English  Bards.  After  describing 
him  as  «the  maudlin  prince  of  mournful  sonneteers ». 
Byron  refers  to  his  poem  On  the  Spirit  of  Discovery 
(i8o5),  thus:  — 

«Now  to  soft  themes  thou  scornest  confine. 
The  lofty  numbers  of  a  harp  like  thine. 
Awake  a  louder  and  a  loftier  strain (W 
Such  as  none  heard  before,  or  will  again! 

(,,)  It  is  to  be  remarked  that  the  things  given  to  the  public  as 
Poems  of  Camoens  are  no  more  to  be  found  in  the  original  Portu- 
guese than  in  the  Song  of  Solomon.  —  B.  N. 

(W    Awake  a  louder,  etc.,  etc.,  is  the  first  line  in  Bowles's  Spirit 

78  Byron's  other  writings. 

Where  all  discoveries  jumbled  from  the  flood, 

Since  first  the  leaky  ark  reposed  in  mud, 

By  more  or  less,  are  sung  in  every  book. 

From  Captain  Noah  to  Captain  Cook, 

Nor  this  alone;  but,  pausing  on  the  road, 

The  bard  sighs  forth  a  gentle  episode (a); 

And  gravely  tells  — attend,  each  beauteous  miss!  — 

When  first  Madeira  trembled  to  a  kiss». 

In  the  same  English  Bards  Sir  Walter  Scott  is 
referred  to  as  agrovellins  Scott»(,,)  and  Southev  is  des- 
cribed  thus:  — 

«Behold  the  ballard-monger  Southey  rise! 

To  him  let  Camoens,  Milton,  Tasso  vield»  etc.,  etc. 

All  these  brief  extracts  and  references  are  given 
here,   first,   because   they   have   some  connexion  with 

of  Discovery  a  very  spirited  and  pretty  dwarf  epic.     Among  other 
exquisite  lines  we  have  the  following. 

«A  kiss 
Stole  on  the  list'ning  silence  never  yet 
Here  heard;  they  trembled  even  as  if  the  power,  etc.». 
That  is.  the  woods  of  Madeira  trembled  to  a  kiss,  very  much 
astonished,  as  they  might  well  be,  at  such  a  phenomenon.  —  B.  N. 
(a)  The  episode  here  alluded  to  is  the  story  of  «Robert  Machine 
and  «Anna  Arfet»  a  pair  of  constant  lovers,  who  exchanged  the 
kiss  above  mentioned,  that  startled  the  woods  of  Madeira. — B.  N. 
ll''  Scott,  better  known  in  the  Morning  Post  by  the  name  of 
Haflz.     This  person  is  at  present  the  most  profound  explorer  of 
bathos.    I  remember,  when  the  reigning  family  left  Portugal,  a  spe- 
cial ode  of  Master  Scott's  beginning  thus  (Scott  loquitur  quoad 

Princely  offspring  of  Braganza, 

Erin  greets  thee  with  a  stanza,  etc. — B.  N. 

Byron  wrote  this  in  1809;  three  years  afterwards  he  apologised 

for  what   he  had   said,  and  both  of  them  became  great  friends. 


Portugal;  and,  secondly,  because  they  reveal  their 
author's   mental  attitude  before  he  came  to  Portugal. 

II.  But  not  thy  hapless  fate  the  same.     Camoens, 

whose  whole  life  was  a  series  of  misfortunes  and 
disappointments,  was  born  in  Lisbon  in  i524  and  died 
in  the  same  city  in  i58o.  The  happiest  part  of  his  life 
was  passed  at  Coimbra,  where  as  a  student  he  had  his 
juvenile  loves.  On  his  return  to  Lisbon,  in  about  1 5_].3, 
he  fell  seriously  in  love  with  Dona  Catharina  d'Athaide, 
a  ladv  in  waiting  on  the  Queen,  which  caused  his 
banishment  first  to  Ribatejo,  and  then  to  North  Africa, 
where  he  lost  his  right  eve.  He  came  back  in  i55i, 
and  in  the  following  year  had  to  undergo  an  impri- 
sonment of  nine  months  for  wounding  a  court  official 
in  defence  of  two  of  his  friends.  On  his  release  he 
had  to  volunteer  to  go  to  India  as  a  common  soldier, 
and  to  leave  Lisbon  on  March  26,  1 553,  in  the  ship 
San  Bento.  From  Goa  he  was  sent  to  Macau  in  China 
on  a  civil  appointment.  While  coming  back  he  was 
ship-wrecked  at  Cambodia,  off  the  mouth  6f  the  River 
Mekong,  and  had  to  swim  with  one  hand  while  he  held 
the  manuscript  of  his  poem  in  the  other.  On  his  arrival 
in  Goa  he  was  again  thrown  into  prison  for  some  of 
his  supposed  irregularities  in  China.  After  an  absence 
of  sixteen  years  he  returned  to  Portugal  in  April  1070, 
and  died  in  an  asylum  on  June  10,  i58o.  A  suggestion 
has  been  thrown  out  lately  that  the  real  object  of  his 
affection  which  brought  about  his  banishment  was  Dona 
Maria,  one  of  the  daughters  of  King  Manuel  I. 

The  Lusiads,  the  great  epic  of  Camoens,  was  pub- 
lished in  1672,  and  has  been  translated  into  English 
by  Fanshaw  (i655),  Mickle   (1776),  Musgrove  (1818), 

So  Byron's  othek  writings. 

Quilinan  (partially,  i853),  Aubertin  (1878),  Duff  (1880 ), 
and  Burton  (1881).  All  the  great  honours  rendered 
to  him  are  posthumous.  He  was  patient  and  forbearing 
in  all  his  adversities,  and  was  so  high-minded  that  he 
simply  ignored,  bantered,  or  pitied  his  adversaries. 
His  great  forte  was  love:  love  of  women,  love  of  his 
great  countrvmen,  and  love  of  his  country. 

When  Byron  referred  to  the  « hapless  fate*,  of  Ca- 
moens,  he  had  no  doubt  in  his  mind  Bowles's  Last 
Song  of  Camoens,  and  also  the  following  lines  in  The 
Spirit  of  Discoreiy  by  Sea  referring  to  the  unfortunate 

«Alas!  I  see  an  aged  form. 

An  old  man  worn  bv  penury,  his  hair 

Blown  white  upon  his  haggard  cheek,  his  hand 

Emaciated,  yet  the  strings  with  thrilling  touch, 

Soliciting;  but  the  vain  crowds  pass  by  — 

His  very  countrymen,  whose  fame  his  song. 

Has  raised  to  Heav'n  in  stately  apathy, 

Wrapt  up,  and  nursed  in  Pride's  fastidious  lap, 

Regard  not.     As  he  plays,  a  sable  man 

Looks  up.  but  fears  to  speak,  and  when  the  song, 

1^  ceased,  kisses  his  master's  feeble  hand. 

Is  that  cold  wasted  hand,  that  haggard  look, 

Thine  Camoens?  O  shame  upon  the  world! 

And  is  there  none,  none  to  sustain  thee  found. 

But  he,  himself  unfriended,  who  so  far. 

Has  followed,  sever'd  from  his  native  isles. 

To  scenes  of  gorge  >u>  cities,  o'er  the  sea. 

Thee  and  thv  broken  fortunes? 

God  of  worlds ! 
Oh!  whilst  I  hail  the  triumph  and  high  boast. 
Of  social  life,  let  me  not  wrong  the  sense. 
Of  kindness,  planted  in  the  human  heart. 
By  man's  great  Maker:  therefore  I  record, 
Antonio's  faithful,  gentle,  generous  love. 


To  his  heart-broken  master,  that  might  teach. 
High  as  it  bears  itself,  a  polished  world. 
More  charity*  l. 

Among  several  books,  articles  and  poems  of  a  later 
period,  devoted  to  Camoens,  there  is  one  which  is 
worthy  of  especial  attention;  it  is  Mrs.  Browning's 
Catarina  to  Camoens2.  This  short  poem,  by  one  of 
the  greatest  poetesses  of  England,  is  so  full  of  tender 
sentiment  that  no  Portuguese,  who  loves  and  admires 
his  Prince  of  Poets,  should  fail  to  read. 



In  moments  to  delight  devoted 
«My  Hfe»  with  tenderest  tone  you  cry, 
Dear  words !  on  which  mv  heart  had  doted. 
If  youth  could  neither  fade  or  die. 

To  death  even  hours  like  these  must  roll. 
Ah!  then  repeat  these  accents  never; 
Or  change  «mv  life»  into  «my  soul» 
Which,  like  mv  love,  exists  for  ever. 


You  call  me  still  your  life 

Oh  change  the  word — 

Life  is  as  transient  as  the  inconstant  sigh: 

Sav  rather  I  am  your  soul;  more  just  that  name. 

For,  like  the  soul,  mv  love  can  never  die. 

(From  Occasional  Pieces). 

1  Bowles  (L.  B.):  The  Poelical  Works  of...  Paris.  1829, 
pg.  17. — Antonio,  a  native  of  Java,  had  followed  Camoens  to  Lis- 
bon.  This  faithful  attendant  used  to  beg  alms  in  the  streets  of 
Lisbon  to  help  his  broken-hearted  master. 

2  Browning  (Elisabeth  Barrett):  Poems.  London.  1878.—  She 
also  refers  to  Camoens  in  her  A  Vision  of  Poets. 


N2  Byron's  other  writings. 

I.    Tit  me  chamas.  Tl)e  original  in  Portuguese  is  as 


Tu  me  chamas  tua  vida, 
Eu  tua  alma  quero  ser; 
A  vida  e  curta,  e  acaba, 
A  alma  nao  pode  morrcr. 

Its  litteral  translation  is:  Thou  callest  me  your  life, 
I  wish  to  be  your  soul;  life  is  short  and  finishes,  the 
sou!  cannot  die. 

The  first  version  was  published,  it  is  said,  in  1814, 
in  the  seventh  edition  of  Childe  Harold;  and  the  second 
in  the  poets  works  in  i83s. 


LINES    TO    MR.    HODGSON.1 

(Written  on  board  the  Lisbon  Packet) 

Huzza!  Hodgson, we  are  going, 

Our  embargo's  off  at  last; 
Favourable  breezes  blowing  — 

Bend  the  canvas  o'er  the  mast. 
From  aloft  the  signal's  streaming, 

Hark!  the  farewell  gun  is  fired; 
Women  screeching,  tars  blaspheming 
Tell  us  that  our  time's  expired 
Here's  a  rascal 
Come  to  task  all 
Prving  from  the  custom  house; 
Trunks  unpacking 
Cases  cracking. 
Not  a  corner  for  a  mouse 
'Scapes  unsearch'd  amid  the  racket, 
Ere  we  sail  on  board  the  Packet. 

Now  our  boatmen  quit  their  mooring, 
And  all  hands  must  ply  the  oar; 


Baggage  from  the  quay  is  Lowering, 

We're  impatient  — push  from  shore, 
«Have  a  care!  that  case  holds  liquor 

Stop  the  boat  I'm  sick  —  oh  Lord!» 
«Sick,  ma'am,  damme,  you'll  he  sicker 
Ere  you've  been  an  hour  on  boards. 
Thus  are  screaming 
Men  and  wome  i, 
Gemmen,  ladies,  servants.  Jacks. 
Here  entangling. 
All  are  wrangling. 
Stuck  together  close  as  wax". — 
Such  the  general  noise  and  racket. 
Ere  we  reach  the  Lisbon  Packet. 

Now  we've  reach'd  her,  lo!  the  Captain, 
Gallant  Kidd,  commands  the  crew; 
Passengers  their  berths  are  clapt  in. 
Some  to  grumble,  some  to  spew. 
«Hev  day!  call  you  that  a  cabin? 

Whv,  'tis  hardlv  three  feet  square: 
Not  enough  to  stow  Queen  Mab  in  — 
Who  the  deuce  can  harbour  there ?» 
«Who  sir:  plenty — 
Nobles  twenty 
Did  at  once  my  vessel  hll». — 
«Did  thev :  Jesus, 
How  you  squeeze  us! 
Would  to  God  thev  did  so  still 
Then  I'd  scape  the  heat  and  racket 
Of  the  good  ship,  Lisbon  Packet". 

Fletcher!  Murray !  Bob!  where  are  you? 

Stretched  along  the  deck  like  logs  — 
Bear  a  hand,  vou  jollv  tar,  you! 

Here's  a  rope  end  for  the  dogs. 
Hobhouse  muttering  fearful  curses. 

As  the  hatchway  down  he  rolls; 
Now  his  breakfast,  now  his  verses, 

Vomits  forth  —  and  damns  our  souls. 

84  Byron's  other  writings. 

'•Here's  a  stan/a 
On  Braganza  — 

«Help!» —  «A  couplet?»)  —  <«No,  a  cup 
Of  warm  water*  — 
«\Yhat  is  the  matter?)) 
«Zounds!  my  liver's  coming  up; 
I  shall  not  survive  the  racket 
Of  this  brutal  Lisbon  Packet. » 

Now  at  length  we're  off  for  Turkey, 

Lord  knows  when  we  .shall  come  back! 
Breezes  foul  and  tempests  murky 

Mav  unship  us  in  a  crack. 
But,  since  life  at  most  a  jest  is. 

As  philosophers  allow. 
Still  to  laugh  by  far  the  best  is, 
Then  laugh  on  as  I  do  now. 
Laugh  at  all  things. 
Great  and  small  things 
Sick,  or  well,  at  sea  or  shore; 
While  we're  quaffing. 
Let's  have  laughing  — 
Who  the  devil  cares  for  more:  — 
Some  good  wine!  and  who  would  lack  it, 
Lv'n  on  board  the  Lisbon  Packet? 

l'almoulh  Roads.  June  3oth.  1809. 

I.  Lines  to  Mr.  Hodgson.  Before  Byron  left  Eng- 
land the  Rev.  Francis  Hodgson  had  addressed  two 
short  poems  to  his  friend:  one  with  respect  to  his 
responsibility  as  a  hereditary  legislator,  and  the  other 
full  of  admonitions  respecting  his  views  on  religion. 
Botli  the  pieces  are  to  be  seen  in  his  work  entitled 
Lady  Jane  Grey.  Mr.  Hodgson  was  the  poet's  best 
correspondent;  he  was  one  of  the  first  to  recognise  the 
merits  of  the  Hours  of  Idleness,  British  Bards,  and 


Childe  Harold.  Their  tastes  in  literary  matters  were 
more  or  less  alike.  To  no  one  did  the  poet  open  his 
mind  more  freely  than  to  Mr.  Hodgson.  His  onlv 
letter  written  from  Lisbon  was  addressed  to  him.  A 
full  and  very  interesting  account  of  their  friendship  has 
been  given  in  the  Memoir  of  the  Rev.  F.  Francis  by 
his  son1.  Byron  was  very  kind  and  generous  to  his 
friend;  he  made  him  a  present  of  a  thousand  pounds 
to  pay  off  his  liabilities. 



Lisbon,  July  16     1809. 

Thus  far  have  we  pursued  our  route,  and  seen  all 
sorts  of  marvellous  sights,  palaces,  convents,  etc., — 
which,  being  to  be  heard  in  my  friend  Hobhouse's 
forthcoming  Book  of  Travels1,  I  shall  not  anticipate  by 
smuggling  any  account  whatsoever  to  you  in  a  private 
and  clandestine  manner.  I  must  just  observe  that  the 
village2  of  Cintra  in  Estremadura  is  the  most  beautiful, 
perhaps,  in  the  world. 

I  am  very  happy  here,  because  I  loves  oranges,  and 
talk  bad  Latin  to  the  monks  who  understand  it,  as  it 
is  like  their  own,  —  and  I  goes  into  society  (with  my 

1  Hodgson  (Rev.  Francis) :  Memoir  of . . .  With  numerous  letters 
from  Lord  Bvron  and  others,  by  his  son  the  Rtv.  James  T.  Hodgson. 
London,  1878. 

2  Cintra  was  granted  the  privileges  of  a  town  (Vila)  by  Afonso 
He.iriques  in  the  XII,  century. 

86  Byron's  othkr  writings.  ' 

pocket  pistols),  and  I  swims  in  the  Tagus"-  all  across 
at  once,  and  I  rides  on  an  ass  or  a  mule,  and  swears 
Portuguese,  and  have  got  a  diarrhoea  and  bites  from 
the  mosquitoes.  But  what  of  that:  Comfort  must  not 
be  expected  bv  folks  that  go  a  pleasuring. 

'When  the  Portuguese  are  pertinacious  I  say  Car- 
racho  the  great  oath  of  the  grandees,  that  very  well 
supplies  the  place  of  Damme  and  when  dissatisfied 
with  my  neighbour,  I  pronounce  him  Ambra  di  mercio. 
With  these  two  phrases  and  the  third  Avra  bouro 
which  signifieth  «Get  an  ass»  I  am  universally  under- 
stood to  be  a  person  of  degree  and  a  master  of  languages. 
How  merrily  we  lives  that  travellers  be!  —  if  we  had 
food  and  raiment.  But,  in  sober  sadness,  anything  is 
better  than  England,  and  I  am  delightfully  amused  with 
my  pilgrimage  as  far  as  it  has  gone. 

To-morrow  we  start  to  ride  post  near  400  miles  as 
far  as  Gibraltar  where  we  embark  for  Melita  and 
Byzantium.  A  letter  to  Malta  will  rind  me,  or  to  be 
forwarded,  if  I  am  absent.  Pray  embrace  the  Drury 
and  DwTyer,  and  all  the  Ephesians,  you  encounter. 
I  am  writing  with  Butler's  donative  pencil,  wThich  makes 
my  bad  hand  worse.     Excuse  illegibility. 

Hodgson!  send  me  the  news,  and  the  deaths  and 
defeats  and  capital  crimes  and  the  misfortunes  of  one's 
friends,  and  let  us  hear  of  literary  matters,  and  the 
controversies  and  the  criticisms.  All  this  will  be  plea- 
sant—  Suavi  mari  magno,  etc.  Talking  of  that  I  have 
been  sea-sick  and  sick  of  the  sea.     Adieu. 

Yours  faithfully,  etc. 

I.  Hobhouses  Book  of  Travels.  John  Cam  Hob- 
house,    afterwards    raised    to    the    peerage    as    Baron 


Bro.ughton  de  Gyfford  (b.  1786  —  &  [869)  was  one 
of  Lord  Byron's  most  intimate  and  steadfast  friends. 

The}"  travelled  together  till  Constantinople,  and  he  left 
for  England  on  14th  July  1810  leaving  Byron  alone.  In 
18 1 3,  one  year  after  the  publication  of  the  two  Cantos 
of  Childe  Harold,  Hobhouse  brought  out  his  Journey 
through  Albania [,  a  bulky  quarto  of  upwards  of  a 
thousand  pages.  He  commences  his  description  abrupt- 
ly from  Malta,  and  does  not  say  a  word  regarding 
Portugal  or  Spain.  That  he  had  taken  ample  notes  in 
Lisbon  there  is  not  the  least  doubt.  Then  why  the 
omission?  There  can  be  only  two  explanations:  either 
the  observations  he  had  made  in  1809  did  not  hold  good 
in  18] 3,  or  his  opinions  were  so  different  from  those 
expressed  in  Childe  Harold  that  he  did  not  like  to 
appear  before  the  public  in  opposition  to  the  views  of 
his  friend.  In  any  case  his  silence  is  very  suspicious. 
Nobody  could  have  described  better  than  he  all  the 
incidents  connected  with  Byron's  life  in  Portugal.  Lord 
Byron  dedicated  his  fourth  Canto  of  Childe  Harold 
to  Hobhouse,  who  on  that  occasion  published  his 
Illustrations  of  the  Fourth  Canto  of  Childe  Harold. 
They  were  so  intimate  that  Hobhouse  acted  as  the  best 
man  at  Byron's  wedding  and  was  the  executor  of  his 

II.  I  am  happy  here. . .  I sivims  in  the  Tagus.    With 
reference   to   the   Poet's   letters   in   those   days  Moore 

1  Hobhouse  (John  Cam) :  A  Journey  through  Albania  and  other 
provinces  or  Turkey  in  Europe  and  Asia  to  Constantinople  during 
the  year  i8og  and  1810.  London,  i8i3. 

NX  Byron's  othek  writings. 

remarks:  «In  a  temperament  like  that  of  Lord  Byron's, 
such  gusts  of  vivacity  on  the  surface  are  by  no  means 
incompatible  with  wounded  spirit  underneath)).  Who 
knows  whether  he  did  not  wish  to  cover  by  his  gaity 
the  sad  experience  he  had  to  submit  to  during  his  stay 
in  Lisbon?  That  he  enjoyed  his  visit  to  Portugal  in 
many  respects  there  is  no  doubt. 

Byron  says:  «I  swims  in  the  Tagus  all  across  at 
once».  Regarding  this  Mr.  Hobhouse  is  reported  to 
have  said:  «Mv  companion  had  before  (his  swim  at  the 
Hellespont)  made  more  perilous  but  less  celebrated 
passage,  for  I  recollect  that,  when  we  were  in  Portugal 
he  swam  from  Old  Lisbon  to  Belem  Castle,  and  having 
to  contend  with  a  tide  and  counter-current,  the  wind 
blowing  freshly,  was  but  little  less  than  two  hours  in 
crossing)).  There  is  some  mistake  in  this  report.  Byron 
c(,uld  not  have  swam  across  the  Tagus  if  he  swam  from 
( )ld  Lisbon  to  the  Tower  of  Belem,  for  both  these  places 
are  on  the  same  side  of  the  river.  What  he  did  do 
was  to  swim  from  the  Lazaretto  to  the  Tower  of  Be- 
lem, a  distance  of  i.55o  metres.  Byron  himself  was 
more  proud,  and  with  good  reason,  of  his  swiming  feat, 
on  the  3rd  of  May,  1810,  across  the  Hellespont,  the 
narrowest  part  of  which  measures  1.800  metres.  Mr. 
Hobhouse  was  not  present  on  this  occasion,  and  so  he 
was  not  in  a  position  to  form  an  opinion  on  the  com- 
parative peril  of  the  two  feats.  The  current  in  the 
Hellespont  in  May  is  stronger  than  that  of  the  Tagus 
in  July. 

All  the  Portuguese  words  and  phrases  used  in  this 
letter  are  wrong.  Carracho  is  probably  «Caramba»; 
amra  di  merdo  is  a  alma  de  m...a»;  and  avra  bouvo 
is  etraga  burro*. 




Gibraltar,  August  6,  1809. 

I   have    just   arrived   at   this    place   after   a   journey 

through  Portugal,  and  a  part  of  Spain,  of  nearly  5oo 
miles.  We  left  Lisbon  and  travelled  on  horseback  to 
Seville  and  Cadiz,  and  thence  in  the  Hyperion  frigate 
to  Gibraltar.  The  horses  are  excellent  —  we  rode 
seventy  miles  a  day.  Eggs  and  wine  and  hard  beds, 
are  all  the  accommodation  we  found,  and,  in  such 
torrid  weather,  quite  enough.  My  health  is  better  than 
in  England.  Seville  is  a  line  town,  and  the  Sierra 
Morena,  part  of  which  we  crossed,  a  very  sufficient 
mountain;  but  damn  description,  it  is  always  disgusting. 
Cadiz,  sweet  Cadiz!  it  is  the  first  spot  in  the  creation. 
The  beauty  of  its  streets  and  mansions  is  only  excelled 
by  the  loveliness  of  its  inhabitants.  For  with  all  na- 
tional prejudice  I  must  confess  the  women  of  Cadiz 
are  far  superior  to  the  English  women  in  beaut}  as 
the  Spaniards  are  inferior  to  the  English  in  every 
quality  that  dignities  the  name  of  man.  Just  as  I  began 
to  know  the  principal  persons  of  the  city  I  was  obliged 
to  sail. 

You  will  not  expect  a  long  letter  after  my  riding  - 
far  «on  hollow  pampered  jades  of  Asia».     Talking  of 
Asia  puts  me  in  mind  of  Africa,  which  is  within  five 
miles  of  my  present  residence.     I  am  going  over  before 
I  go  on  to  Constantinople. 

Cadiz  is  a  complete  Cythera.    Many  of  the  grandees 
who  have  left  Madrid  during  the  troubles  reside  there, 

qo  Byron's  other  writings. 

and  I  do  believe  it  is  the  prettiest  and  cleanest  town 
in  Europe.  London  is  tilth}-  in  the  comparison..  The 
Spanish  women  are  all  alike,  their  education  the  same. 
The  wife  of  a  duke  is,  in  information,  as  the  wife  of  a 
peasant,  the  wife  of  a  peasant  in  manner,  equal  to  a 
duchess.  Certainly  they  are  fascinating  hut  their  minds 
have  only  one  idea,  and  the  business  of  their  life  in 

I  have  seen  Sir  John  Cam1  at  Seville  and  Cadiz, 
and  like  Swift's  barber,  have  been  down  on  mv  knees 
to  beg  he  would  not  put  me  in  black  and  white.  Pray 
remember  me  to  the  Drurys  and  the  Davies,  and  all 
of  that  stamp  who  are  yet  extant.  Send  me  a  letter 
and  news  to  Malta.  My  next  epistle  shall  be  from 
Mount  Caucasus  or  Mount  Sion.  I  shall  return  to 
Spain  before  I  see  England,  for  I  am  enamoured  of 
the  country. 

Adieu,  and  believe  me,  etc. 



Gibraltar,  August  u,  1809. 

Dear  Mother,  I  have  been  so  much  occupied  since 
my  departure  from  England,  that  till  I  could  address 
you  at  length  I  have  forborne  writing  altogether.  As 
I  have  now  passed  through  Portugal,  and  a  considerable 

1  Sir  John  Cam  styled,  in  a  suppressed  stanza  of  Childe  Ha- 
rold, «Green  Erin's  Knight  and  Europe's  wandering  star»,was  the 
author  of  several  and  important  hooks  on  travel  in  various  parts 


part  of  Spain,  and  have  leisure  at  this  place,  I   shall 

endeavour  to  give  you  a  short  detail  of  my  movements. 

We  sailed  from  Falmouth  on  the  2nd  of  July,  reached 

Lisbon  after  a  very  favourable  passage  of  four  days 
and  a  half  and  took  up  our  abode  in  that  citv.  It  has 
been  often  described  without  being  worthy  of  description; 
for  except  the  viewT  from  the  Tagus,  which  is  beautiful, 
and  some  fine  churches  and  convents,  it  contains  little 
but  filthy  streets,  and  more  filthy  inhabitants1.  To 
make  amends  for  this,  the  village  of  Cintra,  about 
fifteen  miles  from  the  capital  is,  perhaps  in  every 
respect,  the  most  delightful  in  Europe,  it  contains 
beauties  of  every  description  natural  and  artificial,  Pa- 
laces and  gardens  rising  in  the  midst  of  rocks,  cataracts 
and  precipices;  convents  on  stupendous  heights  —  a 
distant  view  of  the  sea  and  the  Tagus,  and  besides 
(though  that  is  a  secondary  consideration),  is  remarkable 
as  the  scene  of  Sir  H.  Dalrymple's  Convention.  It 
unites  in  itself  all  the  wildness  of  the  western  highlands, 
with  the  verdure  of  the  south  of  France2.     Near  this 

of  Europe.  Among  his  other  works  he  published  in  181 1  Descript- 
ive travels  in  the  Southern  and  Eastern  parts  of  Spain  and  the 
Balearic  Isles  (Majorca  and  Minorca)  in  the  year  1809.  He  does 
not  make  in  it  any  reference  to  Lord  Byron,  who  «had  begged  not 
to  be  put  in  black  and  white». 

1  In  a  letter  to  his  mother,  from  Constantinople,  dated  June  28, 
1810,  Lord  Byron  says:  «I  have  passed  some  time  with  the  prin- 
cipal Greeks  in  the  Morae  and  Livadia,  and,  though  inferior  to  the 
Turks,  thev  are  better  than  the  Spaniards,  who,  in  their  turn,  excel 
the  Portugueses 

2  In  Bvron's  correspondence  there  are  other  references  t<> 
Cintra.  In  a  letter  written  at  Prevesa  in  Turkey  he  says:  «I  went 
over  the  mountains  through  Zitza,  a  village  with  a  Greek  m<mas- 


Byron's  other  writings. 

place,  about  ten  miles  to  the  right,  is  the  palace  of 
Mafra,  the  boast  of  Portugal,  as  it  might  be  of  any 
country,  in  point  of  magnificence,  without  elegance. 
There  is  a  convent  annexed;  the  monks  who  possess 
large  revenues,  are  courteous  enough,  and  understand 
Latin;  so  that  we  had  a  long  conversation.  They  have 
a  large  library,  and  asked  me  if  the  English  had  any 
books  in  their  country1. 

I  sent  my  baggage,  and  part  of  the  servants,  by  sea 
to  Gibraltar,  and  travelled  on  horseback  from  Aldea 
Gallega  the  first  stage  from  Lisbon,  which  is  only 
accessible  bv  water  to  Seville  (one  of  the  most  famous 
cities  in  Spain),  where  the  Government  called  the  Junta 
is  now  held.  The  distance  to  Seville  is  nearly  four 
hundred  miles,  and  to  Cadiz  almost  ninety  farther 
towards  the  coast.     I  had  orders  from  the  governments 

tery  (where  I  slept  on  my  return)  in  the  most  beautiful  situation 
(always  excepting  Cintra,  in  Portugal)  I  ever  beheld»  (Nov.  r>, 
1809).  He  also  refers  to  Cintra  in  a  note  to  «Fair  Greece,  sad 
relic  of  departed  worths  (C.  II.,  st.  lxxxiii.).  «From  Fort  PhylU 
he  savs,  «of  which  large  remains  still  exist,  the  plains  of  Athens, 
Pentelicus,  Hvmethus  burst  upon  the  eye  at  once;  in  my  own 
opinion,  a  more  glorious  prospect  than  even  Cintra  or  Istamboulw. 
It  will  be  noticed  that  he  speaks  here  of  plains  and  not  of  moun- 

1  The  story  is  well  told  but  whether  it  is  quite  accurate  is 
doubtful.  What  the  monk  probably  asked  was  whether  there 
were  many  large  libraries  (librarias)  in  England  and  not  books 
(libros),  but  a  mot  pour  rire  in  a  private  letter,  which  was  never 
intended  for  publication,  amuses  the  reader  and  does  no  harm; 
but  when  it  is  accepted  bv  his  commentators,  and  biographers 
like  Karl  Kl/e,  as  a  measure  of  ignorance  of  the  monks  at  Mafra 
it  is  quite  different. 

NOTES    \M>  COMMENTS.  0,3 

and  every  possible  accommodation  on  the  road,  as  an 
English  nobleman,  In  an  English  uniform,  is  a  very 
respectable  personage  in  Spain  at  present.  The  horses 
are  remarkably  good,  and  the  roads  (I  assure  you  upon 
my  honour  for  you  will  hardly  believe  it)  very  far 
superior  to  the  best  English  roads,  without  the  smallest 
toll  or  turnpike.  You  will  suppose  this  when  I  rode 
post  to  Seville,  in  four  days  through  this  parching 
countrv  in  the  midst  of  summer,  without  fatigue  or 

Seville  is  a  beautiful  town;  though  the  streets  are 
narrow  they  are  clean.  We  lodged  in  the  house  of 
two  Spanish  unmarried  ladies,  who  possess  six  houses 
in  Seville,  and  gave  me  a  curious  specimen  of  Spanish 
manners.  They  are  women  of  character,  and  the  eldest 
a  fine  woman,  the  youngest,  pretty  but  not  so  good  a 
figure  as  Donna  Josepha.  The  freedom  of  manner, 
which  is  general  here,  astonished  me  not  a  little;  and 
in  the  course  of  further  observations,  I  find  that  reserve 
is  not  the  characteristic  of  Spanish  belles,  who  are,  in 
general,  very  handsome,  with  large  black  eyes,  and  very 
fine  forms.  The  eldest  honoured  your  unworthy  son 
with  verv  particular  attention,  embracing  him  with  great 
tenderness  at  parting  (I  was  there  but  three  days)  after 
cutting  off  a  lock  of  his  hair,  and  presenting  him  with 
one  of  her  own,  about  three  feet  in  length,  which  I  send, 
and  beg  you  will  retain  till  my  return.  Her  last  words 
were  Adios,  tu  hermoso!  me  gusto  mucho  —  Adieu,  you 
prettv  fellow!  you  please  me  much.  She  offered  me 
a  share  of  her  apartment,  which  virtue  induced  me 
decline;  she  laughed  and  said  I  had  some  English 
amante  (lover)  and  added  she  was  ^o'm^  to  be  married 
to  an  officer  in  the  Spanish  Army. 

94  Byron's  other  writings. 

I  left  Seville  and  rode  on  to  Cadiz,  through  a  beau- 
tiful country.  At  Xeres  where  the  sherry  we  drink  is 
made.  I  met  a  great  merchant  — a  Mr.  Gordon,  of 
Scotland —  who  was  extremely  polite,  and  favoured 
me  with  the  inspection  of  his  vaults  and  cellars,  so 
that  I  quailed  at  the  fountain  head. 

Cadiz,  sweet  Cadiz,  is  the  most  delightful  town 
I  ever  beheld,  very  different  from  our  English  cities  in 
every  respect  except  cleanliness  (and  it  is  as  clean  as 
Londoro,  but  still  beautiful,  and  full  of  the  finest  women 
in  Spain,  and  Cadiz  belles  being  the  Lancashire  witches 
of  their  land.  Just  as  I  was  introduced  and  began  to 
like  the  grandees  I  was  forced  to  leave  it  for  this  cursed 
place:  but  before  I  return  to  England  I  will  visit  it 

The  night  before  I  left  it,  I  sat  in  the  box  of  the 
Opera  with  Admiral  Cordova's  family;  he  is  the  com- 
mander whom  Lord  St.  Vincent  defeated  in  1797,  and 
has  an  aged  wife  and  a  fine  daughter  Sennorita  Cor- 
dova. The  girl  is  very  pretty,  in  the  Spanish  style; 
in  mv  opinion,  bv  no  means  inferior  to  the  English 
charms  and  certainly  superior  in  fascination.  Long 
black  hair,  dark  languishing  eves,  clear  olive  complex- 
ions, and  form  more  graceful  in  motion  than  can  be 
conceived  bv  an  Englishman  used  to  drowsy  listless 
air  of  his  countrywomen,  added  to  the  most  becoming 
dress,  and  at  the  same  time,  the  most  decent  in  the 
world,  render  a  Spanish  beauty  irresistible. 

Miss  Cordova  and  her  little  brother  understood  a 
little  French,  and,  after  regretting  my  ignorance  of  the 
Spanish,  she  proposed  to  become  mv  preceptress  in 
that  language.  I  could  only  reply  bv  a  low  bow,  and 
express   mv   regret  that  I   quitted   Cadiz  too1  soon  to 

NOTES    \M»  COMMEN  IS.  1 1? 

permit  rne  to  make  the  progress  which  would  doubtl 
attend  my  studies  under  so  charming  a  directress.  I 
was  standing  at  the  back  of  the  box,  which  resembles 
our  Opera  hoses,  (the  theatre  is  large  and  finely  de- 
corated, the  music  admirable,)  in  the  manner  which 
Englishman  generally  adopt,  for  fear  of  incommoding 
the  ladies  in  front,  when  this  fair  Spanish  dispossessed 
an  old  woman  fan  aunt  or  a  duenna)  of  her  chair,  and 
commanded  me  to  be  seated  next  to  herself,  at  a  toler- 
able distance  from  her  mamma.  At  the  close  of  the 
performance  I  withdrew,  and  was  lounging  with  a 
party  of  men  in  the  passage,  when  en  passant,  the  lady 
turned  round  and  called  me,  and  I  had  the  honour  of 
attending  her  to  the  admiral's  mansion.  I  have  an 
invitation  on  my  return  to  Cadiz,  which  I  shall  accept 
if  I  repass  through  the  countrv  on  my  return  from 

I  have  met  Sir  John  Cam,  Knight  Errant,  at  Seville 
and  Cadiz.  He  is  a  pleasant  man.  I  like  the  Spaniards 
much.  You  have  heard  of  the  battle  near  Madrid  J, 
and  in  England  thev  would  call  it  a  victory  —  a  pretty 
victory!  Two  hundred  officers  and  rive  thousand  men 
killed,  all  English,  and  the  French  in  as  great  force  as 
erer.  I  should  have  joined  the  army,  but  we  have  no 
time  to  lose  before  we  get  up  the  Mediterranean  and 
Archipelago.  I  am  going  over  to  Africa  to-morrow;  it 
is  only  six  miles  from  this  fortress.     My  nexr  stage  is 

1  The  battle  near  Madrid  is  that  of  Talavera,  which  was 
fought  on  July  27  and  28,  ^809,  in  which  Sir  Arthur Wellesley  with 
English  and  some  Portuguese  and  Spanish  troop  defeated  Marshal 


96  Byron's  othkr  writings. 

Cagliari  in  Sardinia,  where  I  shall  be  presented  to  his 
Majesty.  I  have  a  most  superb  uniform  as  a  court-dress 
indispensable  in  travelling. 

August  1 3. — I  have  not  been  to  Africa  the  wind  is 
contrary  but  I  dined  yesterday  at  Algesiras,  with  lady 
Westmoreland,  where  I  met  General  Castanos,  the 
celebrated  Spanish  leader  in  the  later  and  present  war. 
To-day  1  dine  with  him.  He  has  offered  me  letters 
to  Tetuan  in  Barbary,  for  the  principal  Moors,  and  I 
am  to  have  the  house  for  a  few  days  of  one  of  the  great 
men,  which  was  intended  for  Lady  W.  whose  health 
will  not  permit  her  to  cross  the  straits. 

August  1 5.  —  I  could  not  dine  with  Castanos  yes- 
terday, but  this  afternoon  I  had  the  honour.  He  is 
pleasant  and,  for  wha,t  I  know  to  the  contrary,  clever. 
I  cannot  go  to  Barbary.  The  Malta  packet  sails  to- 
morrow, and  myself  in  it.  Admiral  Purvis,  with  whom 
I  dined  at  Cadiz,  gave  me  a  passage  in  a  frigate  to 
Gibraltar,  but  we  have  no  ship  of  war  destined  for 
Malta  at  present.  The  packets  sail  past,  and  have 
good  accommodation.  You  shall  hear  from  me  on  our 

Joe  Murray  delivers  this;  I  have  sent  him  and  the 
bov  back.  Prav  show  the  lad  kindness,  as  he  is  nay 
great  favourite;  I  would  have  taken  him  on.  And  say 
this  to  his  father,  who  may  otherwise  think  he  has 
behaved  ill. 

I  hope  this  will  find  you  well.     Believe  me, 

Yours  ever  sincerely, 

NO  l  ES    \M>  COMMEN  rS.  I  r 

P.  S.  —  So  Lord  G.1  is  married  to  a  rustic!  Well 
done!  If  I  wed  I  will  bring  you  home  a  sultana,  with 
half  a  dozen  cities  for  a  dowry,  and  reconcile  you  to 
an  Ottoman  daughter-in-law  with  a  bushel  of  pearls. 
not  larger  than  ostrich  eggs,  or  smaller  than  walnuts. 

I.  I  have  an  invitation  on  my  return  to  Cadi\,  which 
I  shall  accept  if  I  repass  through  the  country  on  my 
return  from  Asia.  Byron's  original  plan  of  his  grand 
tour  was  to  visit  Persia,  India  and  Egypt,  but  pecuniary 
difficulties  compelled  him  to  return  to  England  earlier 
than  he  had  intended. 

Like,  or  rather  more  than,  all  young  men,  Byron 
was  greatly  sensitive  to  any  attention  shown  him  by 
the  fairer  sex.  The  belles  of  Cadiz  impressed  him  so 
much  that  he  wished  to  visit  his  « first  spot  in  the 
creations  once  more  before  returning  to  England.  In 
his  Don  Juan  he  remembers  all  his  Donnas  Josephas 
and  does  not  forget  Senorita  Cordova's  proposal  to 
teach  him  Spanish.  It  will  be  noticed  that  in  all  his 
letters  there  is  not  the  slightest  reference  to  any  Por- 
tuguese women.  Too  gallant  to  say  anything  against 
them,  he  simply  ignores  them.  This  is  an  indirect 
proof  that  a  woman  was  the  main  cause  of  his  rancour 
against  the  Portuguese. 

1  Lord  G. .  .  is  Lord  Grey  de  Rethen,  who  had  married  Anna 
Maria,  daughter  of  William  Helham;  he  had  been  a  temporary 
tenant  of  Newstead  Abbey. 


O  Preso  de  Chillon.  Traductor  Fernando  Luis  Mousinho  de  Albu- 
querque. Lisboa,  i833. 

Os  Amores  de  D.  Joao.  Extracto  do  Poema.  Traduccao  de  Joao 
Vieira  Caldas.  Porto,  1875. 

Peregrinacoes  de  Childe  Harold.  Traduccao  do  inglez  por  Alberto 
Telles.  Canto  Primeiro.  Portugal  e  Hespanha.  Lisboa,  188 1. 

Poemas :  Parisana.  Ma^eppa.  O  Corsairo.  O  Prisioneiro  de  Chillon. 
Lament aqao  de  Tasso.  Traduccao  de  A.  S.  (Agostinho  Albino 
de  Silveira  Pinto).  Porto,  1889. 

Manfredo.  O  Giaour.  Traduccoes  do  original  por  Carlos  Xavier. 
Coimbra,  1893. 

O  Cerco  de  Corintho.  Traduccao  de  Henrique  Ernesto  Coutinho. 
Porto,  1893. 

NOTE.  —  Besides  these  there  are  some  of  Byron's  works  trans- 
lated into  Portuguese  in  Brazil. 

14   UAI     vov 



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Albuquerque     1 

LD  21A-50m-9,'58 

General  Library 

University  of  California 




D.  Jeronimo  de  Mascarenhas 

Rua  do  Arco,  a  Jesus,  113— LISBOA 

lord  Bros..  Inc. 

ckton,  Calif. 

}eg.  U.S.Pat.  Off. 

5+510+  >*«*' ;?".